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... John Singer Sargent's painting
Mary Crowninshield Endicott Chamberlain
... Francois-Xavier Fabre's painting
Marie-Louise Joubert
... Rembrandt van Rijn's painting
Man in oriental costume


Mary Crowninshield Endicott Chamberlain by
John Singer Sargent
Inspired Joel Toft to do this painting 
Oil on canvas
35 x 43 cm

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John Singer Sargent

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2015-08-03


Description: Sargent, John SInger (1856-1925) - Self-Portrait 1907 b.jpg

Self-Portrait, 1906, oil on canvas,
Uffizi Gallery, Florence.


(1856-01-12)January 12, 1856
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany


April 14, 1925(1925-04-14) (aged 69)
London, England, U.K.


American (United States)


École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts

Known for


Notable work

Portrait of Madame X
El Jaleo
The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit
Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose
Lady Agnew of Lochnaw

John Singer Sargent (/ˈsɑrdʒənt/; January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury.[1][2] During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. His oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.




His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London. Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, although not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his "Portrait of Madame X", was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air. He lived most of his life in Europe.

Early life

Before Sargent's birth, his father, FitzWilliam (b. 1820 Gloucester, Massachusetts), was an eye surgeon at the Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia 1844–1854. After John's older sister died at the age of two, his mother, Mary (née Singer), suffered a breakdown, and the couple decided to go abroad to recover. They remained nomadic expatriates for the rest of their lives.[3][4] Although based in Paris, Sargent's parents moved regularly with the seasons to the sea and the mountain resorts in France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. While Mary was pregnant, they stopped in Florence, Tuscany, because of a cholera epidemic. Sargent was born there in 1856. A year later, his sister Mary was born. After her birth, FitzWilliam reluctantly resigned his post in Philadelphia and accepted his wife's entreaties to remain abroad.[5] They lived modestly on a small inheritance and savings, living a quiet life with their children. They generally avoided society and other Americans except for friends in the art world.[6] Four more children were born abroad, of whom only two lived past childhood.[7]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ad/Miss_Frances_Sherborne_Ridley_Watts.jpg/170px-Miss_Frances_Sherborne_Ridley_Watts.jpg

Fanny Watts, Sargent's childhood friend. The first painting at Paris Salon, 1877, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Although his father was a patient teacher of basic subjects, young Sargent was a rambunctious child, more interested in outdoor activities than his studies. As his father wrote home, "He is quite a close observer of animated nature."[8] His mother was quite convinced that traveling around Europe, and visiting museums and churches, would give young Sargent a satisfactory education. Several attempts to have him formally schooled failed, owing mostly to their itinerant life. Sargent's mother was a fine amateur artist and his father was a skilled medical illustrator.[9] Early on, she gave him sketchbooks and encouraged drawing excursions. Young Sargent worked with care on his drawings, and he enthusiastically copied images from The Illustrated London News of ships and made detailed sketches of landscapes.[10] FitzWilliam had hoped that his son's interest in ships and the sea might lead him toward a naval career.

At thirteen, his mother reported that John "sketches quite nicely, & has a remarkably quick and correct eye. If we could afford to give him really good lessons, he would soon be quite a little artist."[11] At the age of thirteen, he received some watercolor lessons from Carl Welsch, a German landscape painter.[12] Although his education was far from complete, Sargent grew up to be a highly literate and cosmopolitan young man, accomplished in art, music, and literature.[13] He was fluent in French, Italian, and German. At seventeen, Sargent was described as "willful, curious, determined and strong" (after his mother) yet shy, generous, and modest (after his father).[14] He was well-acquainted with many of the great masters from first hand observation, as he wrote in 1874, "I have learned in Venice to admire Tintoretto immensely and to consider him perhaps second only to Michelangelo and Titian."[15]


Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/96/The_Daughters_of_Edward_Darley_Boit%2C_John_Singer_Sargent%2C_1882_%28unfree_frame_crop%29.jpg/220px-The_Daughters_of_Edward_Darley_Boit%2C_John_Singer_Sargent%2C_1882_%28unfree_frame_crop%29.jpg

The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit', 1882, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

An attempt to study at the Academy of Florence failed as the school was re-organizing at the time, so after returning to Paris from Florence, Sargent began his art studies with Carolus-Duran. The young French portrait artist, who had a meteoric rise, was noted for his bold technique and modern teaching methods, and his influence would be pivotal to Sargent during the period from 1874 to 1878.[16]

In 1874, on the first attempt, Sargent passed the rigorous exam required to gain admission to the École des Beaux-Arts, the premier art school in France. He took drawing classes, which included anatomy and perspective, and gained a silver prize.[16][17] He also spent much time in self-study, drawing in museums and painting in a studio he shared with James Carroll Beckwith. He became both a valuable friend and Sargent's primary connection with the American artists abroad.[18] Sargent also took some lessons from Léon Bonnat.[17]

Carolus-Duran's atelier was progressive, dispensing with the traditional academic approach, which required careful drawing and underpainting, in favor of the alla prima method of working directly on the canvas with a loaded brush, derived from Diego Velázquez. It was an approach that relied on the proper placement of tones of paint.[19]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/John_Singer_Sargent_-_An_Out-of-Doors_Study_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg/220px-John_Singer_Sargent_-_An_Out-of-Doors_Study_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

An Out-of-Doors Study, 1889, depicting Paul César Helleu sketching with his wife Alice Guérin. The Brooklyn Museum, New York.

This approach also permitted spontaneous flourishes of color not bound to an under-drawing. It was markedly different from the traditional atelier of Jean-Léon Gérôme, where Americans Thomas Eakins and Julian Alden Weir had studied. Sargent was the star student in short order. Weir met Sargent in 1874 and noted that Sargent was "one of the most talented fellows I have ever come across; his drawings are like the old masters, and his color is equally fine."[18] Sargent's excellent command of French and his superior talent made him both popular and admired. Through his friendship with Paul César Helleu, Sargent would meet giants of the art world, including Degas, Rodin, Monet, and Whistler.

Sargent's early enthusiasm was for landscapes, not portraiture, as evidenced by his voluminous sketches full of mountains, seascapes, and buildings.[20] Carolus-Duran's expertise in portraiture finally influenced Sargent in that direction. Commissions for history paintings were still considered more prestigious, but were much harder to get. Portrait painting, on the other hand, was the best way of promoting an art career, getting exhibited in the Salon, and gaining commissions to earn a livelihood.

Sargent's first major portrait was of his friend Fanny Watts in 1877, and was also his first Salon admission. Its particularly well-executed pose drew attention.[20] His second salon entry was the Oyster Gatherers of Cançale, an impressionistic painting of which he made two copies, one of which he sent back to the United States, and both received warm reviews.[21]

Early career

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/John_Singer_Sargent_-_El_Jaleo.jpg/260px-John_Singer_Sargent_-_El_Jaleo.jpg

El Jaleo (Spanish Dancer), c. 1879–82, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

In 1879, at the age of 23, Sargent painted a portrait of teacher Carolus-Duran; the virtuoso effort met with public approval, and announced the direction his mature work would take. Its showing at the Paris Salon was both a tribute to his teacher and an advertisement for portrait commissions.[22] Of Sargent's early work, Henry James wrote that the artist offered "the slightly 'uncanny' spectacle of a talent which on the very threshold of its career has nothing more to learn."[23]

After leaving Carolus-Duran's atelier, Sargent visited Spain. There he studied the paintings of Velázquez with a passion, absorbing the master's technique, and in his travels gathered ideas for future works.[24] He was entranced with Spanish music and dance. The trip also re-awakened his own talent for music (which was nearly equal to his artistic talent), and which found visual expression in his early masterpiece El Jaleo (1882). Music would continue to play a major part in his social life as well, as he was a skillful accompanist of both amateur and professional musicians. Sargent became a strong advocate for modern composers, especially Gabriel Fauré.[25] Trips to Italy provided sketches and ideas for several Venetian street scenes genre paintings, which effectively captured gestures and postures he would find useful in later portraiture.[26]

Upon his return, Sargent quickly received several portrait commissions. His career was launched. He immediately demonstrated the concentration and stamina that enabled him to paint with workman-like steadiness for the next twenty-five years. He filled in the gaps between commissions with many non-commissioned portraits of friends and colleagues. His fine manners, perfect French, and great skill made him a standout among the newer portraitists, and his fame quickly spread. He confidently set high prices and turned down unsatisfactory sitters.[27] He mentored his friend Emil Fuchs who was learning to paint portraits in oils.[28]


See also: List of works by John Singer Sargent


Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/SargentParis1885.jpg/240px-SargentParis1885.jpg

John Singer Sargent in his studio with Portrait of Madame X, c. 1885

In the early 1880s Sargent regularly exhibited portraits at the Salon, and these were mostly full-length portrayals of women, such as Madame Edouard Pailleron (1880) (done en plein-air) and Madame Ramón Subercaseaux (1881). He continued to receive positive critical notice.[29]

Sargent's best portraits reveal the individuality and personality of the sitters; his most ardent admirers think he is matched in this only by Velázquez, who was one of Sargent's great influences. The Spanish master's spell is apparent in Sargent's The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882, a haunting interior that echoes Velázquez's Las Meninas.[30] As in many of his early portraits, Sargent confidently tries different approaches with each new challenge, here employing both unusual composition and lighting to striking effect. One of his most widely exhibited and best loved works of the 1880s was The Lady with the Rose (1882), a portrait of Charlotte Burckhardt, a close friend and possible romantic attachment.[31]

Portrait of Madame X 1884

His most controversial work, Portrait of Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau) (1884) is now considered one of his best works, and was the artist's personal favorite; he stated in 1915, "I suppose it is the best thing I have done."[32] when unveiled in Paris at the 1884 Salon, it aroused such a negative reaction that it likely prompted Sargent's move to London. Sargent's self-confidence had led him to attempt another risky experiment in portraiture—but this time it unexpectedly back-fired.[33] The painting was not commissioned by her and he pursued her for the opportunity, quite unlike most of his portrait work where clients sought him out. Sargent wrote to a mutual acquaintance:

I have a great desire to paint her portrait and have reason to think she would allow it and is waiting for someone to propose this homage to her beauty. ...you might tell her that I am a man of prodigious talent.[34]

It took well over a year to complete the painting.[35] The first version of the portrait of Madame Gautreau, with the famously plunging neckline, white-powdered skin, and arrogantly cocked head, featured an off-the-shoulder dress strap which made the overall effect more daring and sensual.[36] Sargent changed the strap to try to dampen the furor, but the damage had been done. French commissions dried up and he told his friend Edmund Gosse in 1885 that he contemplated giving up painting for music or business.[37]

Writing of the reaction of visitors, Judith Gautier observed:

Is it a woman? a chimera, the figure of a unicorn rearing as on a heraldic coat of arms or perhaps the work of some oriental decorative artist to whom the human form is forbidden and who, wishing to be reminded of woman, has drawn the delicious arabesque? No, it is none of these things, but rather the precise image of a modern woman scrupulously drawn by a painter who is a master of his art."[38]

Prior to the Madame X scandal of 1884, Sargent had painted exotic beauties such as Rosina Ferrara of Capri, and the Spanish expatriate model Carmela Bertagna, but the earlier pictures had not been intended for broad public reception. Sargent kept the painting prominently displayed in his London studio until he sold it to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1916, a few months after Gautreau's death.

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Sargent_Mrs_Henry_White.jpg/170px-Sargent_Mrs_Henry_White.jpg

Mrs Henry White, 1883, Corcoran Gallery of Art

Before arriving in England, Sargent began sending paintings for exhibition at the Royal Academy. These included the portraits of Dr. Pozzi at Home (1881), a flamboyant essay in red and his first full-length male portrait, and the more traditional Mrs. Henry White (1883). The ensuing portrait commissions encouraged Sargent to complete his move to London in 1886. Notwithstanding the Madame X scandal, he had considered moving to London as early as 1882; he had been urged to do so repeatedly by his new friend, the novelist Henry James. In retrospect his transfer to London may be seen to have been inevitable.[39]

English critics were not warm at first, faulting Sargent for his "clever" "Frenchified" handling of paint. One reviewer seeing his portrait of Mrs. Henry White described his technique as "hard" and "almost metallic" with "no taste in expression, air, or modeling." With help from Mrs. White, however, Sargent soon gained the admiration of English patrons and critics.[40] Henry James also gave the artist "a push to the best of my ability."[41]

Sargent spent much time painting outdoors in the English countryside when not in his studio. On a visit to Monet at Giverny in 1885, Sargent painted one of his most Impressionistic portraits, of Monet at work painting outdoors with his new bride nearby. Sargent is usually not thought of as an Impressionist painter, but he sometimes used impressionistic techniques to great effect. His Claude Monet Painting at the Edge of a Wood is rendered in his own version of the impressionist style. In the 1880s, he attended the Impressionist exhibitions and he began to paint outdoors in the plein-air manner after that visit to Monet. Sargent purchased four Monet works for his personal collection during that time.[42]

Sargent was similarly inspired to do a portrait of his artist friend Paul César Helleu, also painting outdoors with his wife by his side. A photograph very similar to the painting suggests that Sargent occasionally used photography as an aid to composition.[43] Through Helleu, Sargent met and painted the famed French sculptor Auguste Rodin in 1884, a rather somber portrait reminiscent of works by Thomas Eakins.[44] Although the British critics classified Sargent in the Impressionist camp, the French Impressionists thought otherwise. As Monet later stated, "He is not an Impressionist in the sense that we use the word, he is too much under the influence of Carolus-Duran."[45]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Edinburgh_NGS_Singer_Sargent_Lady_Agnew.JPG/170px-Edinburgh_NGS_Singer_Sargent_Lady_Agnew.JPG

Lady Agnew of Lochnaw, 1893, National Gallery of Scotland

Sargent's first major success at the Royal Academy came in 1887, with the enthusiastic response to Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose, a large piece, painted on site, of two young girls lighting lanterns in an English garden in Broadway in the Cotswolds. The painting was immediately purchased by the Tate Gallery.

His first trip to New York and Boston as a professional artist in 1887–88 produced over twenty important commissions, including portraits of Isabella Stewart Gardner, the famed Boston art patron. His portrait of Mrs. Adrian Iselin, wife of a New York businessman, revealed her character in one of his most insightful works. In Boston, Sargent was honored with his first solo exhibition, which presented twenty-two of his paintings.[46] Here he became friends with painter Dennis Miller Bunker who traveled to England in the summer of 1888 to paint with him en plein air and is the subject of Sargents painting 'Dennis Miller Bunker Painting at Calcot' 1888.

Back in London, Sargent was quickly busy again. His working methods were by then well-established, following many of the steps employed by other master portrait painters before him. After securing a commission through negotiations which he carried out, Sargent would visit the client's home to see where the painting was to hang. He would often review a client's wardrobe to pick suitable attire. Some portraits were done in the client's home, but more often in his studio, which was well-stocked with furniture and background materials he chose for proper effect.[47] He usually required eight to ten sittings from his clients, although he would try to capture the face in one sitting. He usually kept up pleasant conversation and sometimes he would take a break and play the piano for his sitter. Sargent seldom used pencil or oil sketches, and instead lay down oil paint directly.[48] Finally, he would select an appropriate frame.

Sargent had no assistants; he handled all the tasks, such as preparing his canvases, varnishing the painting, arranging for photography, shipping, and documentation. He commanded about $5,000 per portrait, or about $130,000 in current dollars.[49] Some American clients traveled to London at their own expense to have Sargent paint their portrait.

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/John_Singer_Sargent_-_Morning_Walk.jpg/170px-John_Singer_Sargent_-_Morning_Walk.jpg

Morning Walk, 1888, private collection

Around 1890, Sargent painted two daring non-commissioned portraits as show pieces—one of actress Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth and one of the popular Spanish dancer La Carmencita.[50] Sargent was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, and was made a full member three years later. In the 1890s, he averaged fourteen portrait commissions per year, none more beautiful than the genteel Lady Agnew of Lochnaw, 1892. His portrait of Mrs. Hugh Hammersley (Mrs. Hugh Hammersley, 1892) was equally well received for its lively depiction of one of London's most notable hostesses. As a portrait painter in the grand manner, Sargent had unmatched success; he portrayed subjects who were at once ennobled and often possessed of nervous energy. Sargent was referred to as "the Van Dyck of our times."[51] Although Sargent was an American expatriate, he returned to the United States many times, often to answer the demand for commissioned portraits.

Sargent painted a series of three portraits of Robert Louis Stevenson. The second, Portrait of Robert Louis Stevenson and his Wife (1885), was one of his best known.[52] He also completed portraits of two U.S. presidents: Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.

Asher Wertheimer, a wealthy Jewish art dealer living in London, commissioned from Sargent a series of a dozen portraits of his family, the artist's largest commission from a single patron.[53] The paintings reveal a pleasant familiarity between the artist and his subjects. Wertheimer bequeathed most of the paintings to the National Gallery.[54] In 1888, Sargent released his portrait of Alice Vanderbilt Shepard, great-granddaughter of Cornelius Vanderbilt.[55] Many of his most important works are in museums in the United States.

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Almina_Daughter_of_Asher_Wertheimer_by_J_S_Sargent.jpg/170px-Almina_Daughter_of_Asher_Wertheimer_by_J_S_Sargent.jpg

Sargent emphasized Almina Wertheimer's exotic beauty in 1908 by dressing her en turquerie.

By 1900, Sargent was at the height of his fame. Cartoonist Max Beerbohm completed one of his seventeen caricatures of Sargent, making well-known to the public the artist's paunchy physique.[56][57] Although only in his forties, Sargent began to travel more and to devote relatively less time to portrait painting. His An Interior in Venice (1900), a portrait of four members of the Curtis family in their elegant palatial home, Palazzo Barbaro, was a resounding success. But, Whistler did not approve of the looseness of Sargent's brushwork, which he summed up as "smudge everywhere."[58] One of Sargent's last major portraits in his bravura style was that of Lord Ribblesdale, in 1902, finely attired in an elegant hunting uniform. Between 1900 and 1907, Sargent continued his high productivity, which included, in addition to dozens of oil portraits, hundreds of portrait drawings at about $400 each.[59]

In 1907, at the age of fifty-one, Sargent officially closed his studio. Relieved, he stated, "Painting a portrait would be quite amusing if one were not forced to talk while working…What a nuisance having to entertain the sitter and to look happy when one feels wretched."[60] In that same year, Sargent painted his modest and serious self-portrait, his last, for the celebrated self-portrait collection of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy.[61]

As Sargent wearied of portraiture he pursued architectural and landscapes subjects . During a visit to Rome in 1906 Sargent made an oil painting and several pencil sketches of the exterior staircase and balustrade in front of the Church of Saints Dominic and Sixtus, now the church of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum. The double staircase built in 1654 is the design of architect and sculptor Orazio Torriani (fl.1602–1657). In 1907 he wrote: "I did in Rome a study of a magnificent curved staircase and balustrade, leading to a grand facade that would reduce a millionaire to a worm...."[62] The painting now hangs at the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University and the pencil sketches are in the collection of the Harvard University art collection of the Fogg Museum.[63] Sargent later used the architectural features of this stair and balustrade in a portrait of Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University from 1869 to 1909.[64]

Sargent's fame was still considerable and museums eagerly bought his works. That year he declined a knighthood and decided instead to keep his American citizenship. From 1907[65] on, Sargent largely forsook portrait painting and focused on landscapes in his later years. He made numerous visits to the United States in the last decade of his life, including a stay of two full years from 1915 to 1917.[66]

By the time Sargent finished his portrait of John D. Rockefeller in 1917, most critics began to consign him to the masters of the past, "a brilliant ambassador between his patrons and posterity." Modernists treated him more harshly, considering him completely out of touch with the reality of American life and with emerging artistic trends including Cubism and Futurism.[67] Sargent quietly accepted the criticism, but refused to alter his negative opinions of modern art. He retorted, "Ingres, Raphael and El Greco, these are now my admirations, these are what I like."[68] In 1925, soon before he died, Sargent painted his last oil portrait, a canvas of Grace Curzon, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston. The painting was purchased in 1936 by the Currier Museum of Art, where it is on display.[69]


Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bf/John_Singer_Sargent%2C_Gondoliers%E2%80%99_Siesta.jpg/220px-John_Singer_Sargent%2C_Gondoliers%E2%80%99_Siesta.jpg

Gondoliers' Siesta, c. 1904, watercolor

During Sargent's long career, he painted more than 2,000 watercolors, roving from the English countryside to Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida. Each destination offered pictorial stimulation and treasure. Even at his leisure, in escaping the pressures of the portrait studio, he painted with restless intensity, often painting from morning until night.

His hundreds of watercolors of Venice are especially notable, many done from the perspective of a gondola. His colors were sometimes extremely vivid and as one reviewer noted, "Everything is given with the intensity of a dream."[70] In the Middle East and North Africa Sargent painted Bedouins, goatherds, and fisherman. In the last decade of his life, he produced many watercolors in Maine, Florida, and in the American West, of fauna, flora, and native peoples.

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Sargent_-_Muddy_Alligators.jpg/220px-Sargent_-_Muddy_Alligators.jpg

Muddy Alligators, 1917, watercolor

With his watercolors, Sargent was able to indulge his earliest artistic inclinations for nature, architecture, exotic peoples, and noble mountain landscapes. And it is in some of his late works where one senses Sargent painting most purely for himself. His watercolors were executed with a joyful fluidness. He also painted extensively family, friends, gardens, and fountains. In watercolors, he playfully portrayed his friends and family dressed in Orientalist costume, relaxing in brightly lit landscapes that allowed for a more vivid palette and experimental handling than did his commissions (The Chess Game, 1906).[71] His first major solo exhibit of watercolor works was at the Carfax Gallery in London in 1905.[72] In 1909, he exhibited eighty-six watercolors in New York City, eighty-three of which were bought by the Brooklyn Museum.[73] Evan Charteris wrote in 1927:

To live with Sargent's water-colours is to live with sunshine captured and held, with the luster of a bright and legible world, 'the refluent shade' and 'the Ambient ardours of the noon.'[74]

Although not generally accorded the critical respect given Winslow Homer, perhaps America's greatest watercolorist, scholarship has revealed that Sargent was fluent in the entire range of opaque and transparent watercolor technique, including the methods used by Homer.[75]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Theodore_Roosevelt_by_John_Singer_Sargent%2C_1903.jpg/170px-Theodore_Roosevelt_by_John_Singer_Sargent%2C_1903.jpg

Theodore Roosevelt, 1903. Sargent had Roosevelt hold his pose when he turned around with impatience to address the artist while they were walking around the White House surveying possible locations for the portrait.[76]

Other work

As a concession to the insatiable demand of wealthy patrons for portraits, Sargent dashed off hundreds of rapid charcoal portrait sketches, which he called "Mugs." Forty-six of these, spanning the years 1890–1916, were exhibited at the Royal Society of Portrait Painters in 1916.[77]

All of Sargent's murals are to be found in the Boston/Cambridge area. They are in the Boston Public Library, the Museum of Fine Arts, and Harvard's Widener Library. Sargent's largest scale works are the mural decorations that grace the Boston Public Library depicting the history of religion and the gods of polytheism.[78] They were attached to the walls of the library by means of marouflage. He worked on the cycle for almost thirty years but never completed the final mural. Sargent drew on his extensive travels and museum visits to create a dense art historial melange. The murals were restored in 2003–2004.[79]

Sargent worked on the murals from 1895 through 1919; they were intended to show religion's (and society's) progress, from pagan superstition up through the ascension of Christianity, concluding with a painting depicting Jesus delivering the Sermon on the Mount. But Sargent's paintings of "The Church" and "The Synagogue," installed in late 1919, inspired a debate about whether the artist had represented Judaism in a stereotypical, or even an anti-Semitic, manner. [80] Drawing upon iconography that was used in medieval paintings, Sargent portrayed Judaism and the synagogue as a blind, ugly hag, and Christianity and the church as a lovely, and radiant young woman. He also failed to understand how these representations might be problematic for the Jews of Boston; he was both surprised and hurt when the paintings were criticized.[81] The paintings were objectionable to Boston Jews since they seemed to show Judaism defeated, and Christianity triumphant.[82] The Boston newspapers also followed the controversy, noting that while many found the paintings offensive, not everyone was in agreement. In the end, Sargent abandoned his plan to finish the murals, and the controversy eventually died down.

Upon his return to England in 1918 after a visit to the United States, Sargent was commissioned as a war artist by the British Ministry of Information. In his large painting Gassed and in many watercolors, he depicted scenes from the Great War.[83]

Later life and death

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/John_Singer_Sargent_-_An_Artist_in_His_Studio_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg/220px-John_Singer_Sargent_-_An_Artist_in_His_Studio_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

An Artist in His Studio, 1904

In 1922 Sargent co-founded New York City's Grand Central Art Galleries together with Edmund Greacen, Walter Leighton Clark, and others.[84] Sargent actively participated in the Grand Central Art Galleries and their academy, the Grand Central School of Art, until his death in 1925. The Galleries held a major retrospective exhibit of Sargent's work in 1924.[85] He then returned to England, where he died on April 14, 1925 of heart disease.[85] Sargent is interred in Brookwood Cemetery near Woking, Surrey.[86]

Memorial exhibitions of Sargent's work were held in Boston in 1925, and at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the Royal Academy and Tate Gallery in London in 1926.[87] The Grand Central Art Galleries also organized a posthumous exhibition in 1928 of previously unseen sketches and drawings from throughout his career.[88]

Relationships and personal life

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Sargent_-_Rosina.jpg/170px-Sargent_-_Rosina.jpg

Rosina, 1878, depicting Rosina Ferrara

Sargent was a lifelong bachelor who surrounded himself with family and friends. Among the artists with whom Sargent associated were Dennis Miller Bunker, James Carroll Beckwith, Edwin Austin Abbey (who also worked on the Boston Public Library murals), Francis David Millet and Claude Monet, whom Sargent painted. Between 1905 and 1914, Sargent's frequent traveling companions were the married artist couple Wilfrid de Glehn and Jane Emmet de Glehn. The trio would often spend summers in France, Spain or Italy and all three would depict one another in their paintings during their travels.[89]

Sargent developed a lifelong friendship with fellow painter Paul César Helleu, whom he met in Paris in 1878 when Sargent was 22 and Helleu was 18. Sargent's friends and supporters included Henry James, Isabella Stewart Gardner (who commissioned and purchased works from Sargent, and sought his advice on other acquisitions),[90] and Edward VII.[91]

Sargent was extremely private regarding his personal life, although the painter Jacques-Émile Blanche, who was one of his early sitters, said after his death that Sargent's sex life "was notorious in Paris, and in Venice, positively scandalous. He was a frenzied bugger."[92] The truth of this may never be established. Some scholars have suggested that Sargent was homosexual. He had personal associations with Prince Edmond de Polignac and Count Robert de Montesquiou. His male nudes reveal complex and well-considered artistic sensibilities about the male physique and male sensuality; this can be particularly observed in his portrait of Thomas E. McKeller, but also in Tommies Bathing, nude sketches for Hell and Judgement, and his portraits of young men, such as Bartholomy Maganosco and Head of Olimpio Fusco.[93] However, there were many friendships with women, as well, and a similar suppressed sensualism informs his female portrait and figure studies (notably Egyptian Girl, 1891). Art historian Deborah Davis suggests that Sargent's interest in women he considered exotic, Rosina Ferrara, Amélie Gautreau and Judith Gautier, was prompted by infatuation that transcended aesthetic appreciation.[94] The likelihood of an affair with Louise Burkhardt, the model for Lady with the Rose, is accepted by Sargent scholars.[95]

Critical assessment

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Ars%C3%A8ne_Vigeant-John_Singer_Sargent_mg_9497.jpg/220px-Ars%C3%A8ne_Vigeant-John_Singer_Sargent_mg_9497.jpg

Arsène Vigeant, 1885, Musées de Metz

In a time when the art world focused, in turn, on Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism, Sargent practiced his own form of Realism, which made brilliant references to Velázquez, Van Dyck, and Gainsborough. His seemingly effortless facility for paraphrasing the masters in a contemporary fashion led to a stream of commissioned portraits of remarkable virtuosity (Arsène Vigeant, 1885, Musées de Metz; Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Newton Phelps-Stokes, 1897, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) and earned Sargent the moniker, "the Van Dyck of our times."[96]

Still, during his life his work engendered negative responses from some of his colleagues: Camille Pissarro wrote "he is not an enthusiast but rather an adroit performer,"[97] and Walter Sickert published a satirical turn under the heading "Sargentolatry."[73] By the time of his death he was dismissed as an anachronism, a relic of the Gilded Age and out of step with the artistic sentiments of post-World War I Europe. Elizabeth Prettejohn suggests that the decline of Sargent's reputation was due partly to the rise of anti-Semitism, and the resultant intolerance of 'celebrations of Jewish prosperity.'[98] It has been suggested that the exotic qualities[99] inherent in his work appealed to the sympathies of the Jewish clients whom he painted from the 1890s on.

Nowhere is this more apparent than in his portrait Almina, Daughter of Asher Wertheimer (1908), in which the subject is seen wearing a Persian costume, a pearl encrusted turban, and strumming an Indian tambura, accoutrements all meant to convey sensuality and mystery. If Sargent used this portrait to explore issues of sexuality and identity, it seems to have met with the satisfaction of the subject's father, Asher Wertheimer, a wealthy Jewish art dealer.[53]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Sargent_MonetPainting.jpg/220px-Sargent_MonetPainting.jpg

Claude Monet Painting by the Edge of a Wood, 1885, the Tate, London

Foremost of Sargent's detractors was the influential English art critic Roger Fry, of the Bloomsbury Group, who at the 1926 Sargent retrospective in London dismissed Sargent's work as lacking aesthetic quality: "Wonderful indeed, but most wonderful that this wonderful performance should ever have been confused with that of an artist."[98] And, in the 1930s, Lewis Mumford led a chorus of the severest critics: "Sargent remained to the end an illustrator ... the most adroit appearance of workmanship, the most dashing eye for effect, cannot conceal the essential emptiness of Sargent's mind, or the contemptuous and cynical superficiality of a certain part of his execution."

Part of Sargent's devaluation is also attributed to his expatriate life, which made him seem less American at a time when "authentic" socially conscious American art, as exemplified by the Stieglitz circle and by the Ashcan School, was on the ascent.[100]

Despite a long period of critical disfavor, Sargent's popularity has increased steadily since the 1950s. In the 1960s, a revival of Victorian art and new scholarship directed at Sargent strengthened his reputation.[101] Sargent has been the subject of large-scale exhibitions in major museums, including a retrospective exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1986, and a 1999 "blockbuster" traveling show that exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the National Gallery of Art Washington, and the National Gallery, London.

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/Sargent_-_Robert_Louis_Stevenson_and_His_Wife.jpg/220px-Sargent_-_Robert_Louis_Stevenson_and_His_Wife.jpg

Robert Louis Stevenson and His Wife, 1885, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art

In 1986, Andy Warhol commented to Sargent scholar Trevor Fairbrother that Sargent "made everybody look glamorous. Taller. Thinner. But they all have mood, every one of them has a different mood."[102][103] In a Time Magazine article from the 1980s, critic Robert Hughes praised Sargent as "the unrivaled recorder of male power and female beauty in a day that, like ours, paid excessive court to both."[104] }

Posthumous sales

Portrait of Robert Louis Stevenson and his Wife sold in 2004 for $US 8.8 million to Las Vegas casino mogul Steve Wynn to be installed at his newest casino, Wynn Las Vegas.

In December 2004, Group with Parasols (A Siesta) (1905) sold for $US 23.5 million, nearly double the Sotheby's estimate of $12 million. The previous highest price for a Sargent painting was $US 11 million.[105]

Selected works


Madame Paul Poirson (nl), 1885

Mrs. Cecil Wade, 1886

Mrs. Hugh Hammersley, 1892

Frederick Law Olmsted, 1895

Mrs. Carl Meyer and her Children, 1896

The Wyndham Sisters - Lady Elcho, Mrs. Adeane, and Mrs. Tenant, 1899

Lady Helen Vincent in Venice, 1904

  • Mrs. Fiske Warren (Gretchen Osgood) and Her Daughter Rachel, 1903
  • Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b5/Nancy_Viscountess_Astor_by_John_Singer_Sargent.jpeg/135px-Nancy_Viscountess_Astor_by_John_Singer_Sargent.jpeg

Mrs. Waldorf Astor, 1909

George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, 1914, Royal Geographical Society

Cora, Countess of Strafford, 1908

John D. Rockefeller, 1917

Works in oil

A Dinner Table at Night, 1884

Street in Venice, c. 1882, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

The Misses Vickers, 1884, Weston Park Museum

Dans Les Oliviers, 1878

Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose, 1885–86, the Tate, London

Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth, 1889

The Sitwell Family, 1900. From left: Dame Edith Sitwell (1887–1964), Sir George Sitwell, Lady Ida Sitwell, Sir Sacheverell Sitwell (1897–1988), and Sir Osbert Sitwell (1892–1969)

  • The Fountain, Villa Torlonia, Frascati, Italy, 1907


Bedouins, c. 1905–06, watercolor, Brooklyn Museum of Art

Villa di Marlia, Lucca, 1910, watercolor, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Artist in the Simplon, c. 1909, watercolor, Fogg Museum of Art

On the Deck of the Yacht Constellation, 1924, watercolor, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts

Karer See, 1914, watercolor

Simplon Pass- The Tease, 1911, transparent watercolor, opaque watercolor and wax over graphite pencil on paper

The Garden Wall, 1910, watercolor

Gourds, 1906–10, watercolor, Brooklyn Museum

List of selected works


    1. Jump up ^ "While his art matched to the spirit of the age, Sargent came into his own in the 1890s as the leading portrait painter of his generation". Ormond, p. 34, 1998.
    2. Jump up ^ "At the time of the Wertheimer commission Sargent was the most celebrated, sought-after and expensive portrait painter in the world". New Orleans Museum of Art
    3. Jump up ^ Stanley Olson, John Singer Sargent: His Portrait, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986, p. 1, ISBN 0-312-44456-7
    4. Jump up ^ Description: Wikisource-logo.svg Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1900). "Sargent, Paul Dudley". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. 
    5. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 2.
    6. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 4.
    7. Jump up ^ Trevor Fairbrother, John Singer Sargent, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994, p. 11, ISBN 0-8109-3833-2
    8. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 9.
    9. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 10.
    10. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 15.
    11. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 18.
    12. Jump up ^ Carl Little, The Watercolors of John Singer Sargent, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, p. 7, ISBN 0-520-21969-4
    13. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 23
    14. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 27.
    15. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 29.
    16. ^ Jump up to: a b Fairbrother, p. 13.
    17. ^ Jump up to: a b Little, p. 7.
    18. ^ Jump up to: a b Olson, p. 46.
    19. Jump up ^ Elizabeth Prettejohn: Interpreting Sargent, p. 9. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998.
    20. ^ Jump up to: a b Olson, p. 55.
    21. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 16.
    22. Jump up ^ Prettejohn, p. 14, 1998.
    23. Jump up ^ Prettejohn, p. 13, 1998.
    24. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 70.
    25. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 73.
    26. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 33.
    27. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 80.
    28. Jump up ^ "Emil Fuchs papers 1880-1931" (PDF). Brooklyn Museum. 
    29. Jump up ^ Ormond, Richard: "Sargent's Art", John Singer Sargent, pp. 25–7. Tate Gallery, 1998.
    30. Jump up ^ Ormond, p. 27, 1998.
    31. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 40.
    32. Jump up ^ Richard Ormand and Elaine Kilmurray, Sargent: The Early Portraits, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998, p. 114, ISBN 0-300-07245-7
    33. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 45.
    34. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 102.
    35. Jump up ^ Ormand and Kilmurray, p. 113.
    36. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 47.
    37. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 55.
    38. Jump up ^ Cited in Ormond, pp. 27–8, 1998.
    39. Jump up ^ Ormond, p. 28, 1998.
    40. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 43.
    41. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 107.
    42. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 61.
    43. Jump up ^ Olson, plate XVIII
    44. Jump up ^ Ormand and Kilmurray, p. 151.
    45. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 68.
    46. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, pp. 70–2.
    47. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 223.
    48. Jump up ^ Ormand and Kilmurray, p. xxiii.
    49. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 76, price updated by CPI calculator to 2008 at data.bls.gov
    50. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 79.
    51. Jump up ^ Ormond, pp. 28–35, 1998.
    52. Jump up ^ http://www.jssgallery.org/Paintings/Robert_Louis_Stevenson_and_His_Wife.htm
    53. ^ Jump up to: a b Ormond, pp. 169–171, 1998.
    54. Jump up ^ Ormond, p. 148, 1998.
    55. Jump up ^ Exhibit at the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas
    56. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 97.
    57. Jump up ^ Little, p. 12.
    58. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 101.
    59. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 118.
    60. Jump up ^ Olson, p. 227.
    61. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 124.
    62. Jump up ^ Eustace, Katharine. Twentieth C. Paintings in Asholeum Museum. pp. 17–19. 
    63. Jump up ^ "Sketch of a Balustrade, San Domenico e Sisto, Rome". 
    64. Jump up ^ http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/HVDpresidents/eliot.php
    65. Jump up ^ "In the history of portraiture there is no other instance of a major figure abandoning his profession and shutting up shop in such a peremptory way." Ormond, Page 38, 1998.
    66. Jump up ^ Kilmurray, Elaine: "Chronology of Travels", Sargent Abroad, page 242. Abbeville Press, 1997.
    67. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 131.
    68. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 133.
    69. Jump up ^ "EmbARK Web Kiosk". 
    70. Jump up ^ Little, p. 11.
    71. Jump up ^ Prettejohn, pp. 66-69, 1998.
    72. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 148.
    73. ^ Jump up to: a b Ormond, p. 276, 1998.
    74. Jump up ^ Little, p. 110.
    75. Jump up ^ Little, p. 17.
    76. Jump up ^ http://www.jssgallery.org/Paintings/President_Theodore_Roosevelt.htm#Pic
    77. Jump up ^ http://www.jssgallery.org/Resources/Exhibitions/1916_Royal_Society_of_Portrait_Painters.htm
    78. Jump up ^ The Sargent Murals at the Boston Public Library
    79. Jump up ^ John Singer Sargent's "Triumph of Religion" at the Boston Public Library: Creation and Restoration, Ed. Narayan Khandekar, Gianfranco Pocobene, and Kate Smith, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Art Museum, and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.
    80. Jump up ^ "New Painting at Public Library Stirs Jews to Vigorous Protest." Boston Globe, November 9, 1919, p. 48.
    81. Jump up ^ http://www.bpl.org/central/sargenttriumph.htm
    82. Jump up ^ "Jenna Weissman Joselit: Restoring the ‘American Sistine Chapel’... How Sargent’s ‘Synagogue’ Provoked a Nation – Forward.com". The Jewish Daily Forward. 4 August 2010. 
    83. Jump up ^ Little, p. 135.
    84. Jump up ^ "Painters and Sculptors' Gallery Association to Begin Work", New York Times, December 19, 1922.
    85. ^ Jump up to: a b Roberts, Norma J., ed. (1988), The American Collections, Columbus Museum of Art, p. 34, ISBN 0-8109-1811-0 .
    86. Jump up ^ "John Singer Sargent". Necropolis Notables. The Brookwood Cemetery Society. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
    87. Jump up ^ "Tate - Website undergoing maintenance". 
    88. Jump up ^ Taken from Sargent's Sketchbook, The New York Times, February 12, 1928 ; Sargent Sketches in New Exhibit Here, The New York Times, February 14, 1928 .
    89. Jump up ^ http://www.jssgallery.org/paintings/The_Fountain_Villa_Torlonia_Frascati.htm
    90. Jump up ^ Kilmurray, Elaine: "Traveling Companions", Sargent Abroad, pp. 57–8. Abbeville Press, 1997.
    91. Jump up ^ Kilmurray: "Chronology of Travels", p. 240, 1997.
    92. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, Trevor John Singer Sargent: The Sensualist (2001) ISBN 0-300-08744-6, p. 139, Note 4.
    93. Jump up ^ Little, p. 141.
    94. Jump up ^ Davis, pp. 11–22.
    95. Jump up ^ Ormond, p. 14, 1998.
    96. Jump up ^ This from Auguste Rodin, upon seeing The Misses Hunter in 1902. Ormond and Kilmurray, John Singer Sargent: The Early Portraits, p. 150. Yale University, 1998.
    97. Jump up ^ Rewald, John: Camille Pissarro: Letters to his Son Lucien, p. 183. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.
    98. ^ Jump up to: a b Prettejohn, p. 73, 1998.
    99. Jump up ^ Sargent's friend Vernon Lee referred to the artist's "outspoken love of the exotic...the unavowed love of rare kinds of beauty, for incredible types of elegance." Charteris, Evan: John Sargent, p. 252. London and New York, 1927.
    100. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 140.
    101. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 141.
    102. Jump up ^ http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/2aa/2aa371.htm
    103. Jump up ^ See Trevor Fairbrother," Warhol Meets Sargent at Whitney," Arts Magazine 6 (February 1987): 64–71.
    104. Jump up ^ Fairbrother, p. 145.
    105. Jump up ^ The Age, December 3, 2004.


  • Davis, Deborah. Sargent's Women, pages 11–23. Adelson Galleries, Inc., 2003. ISBN 0-9741621-0-8
  • Fairbrother, Trevor: John Singer Sargent: The Sensualist (2001), ISBN 0-300-08744-6, Page 139, Note 4.
  • Joselit, Jenna Weissman. "Restoring the American 'Sistine Chapel' " The Forward, 13 August 2010.
  • Kilmurray, Elaine: Sargent Abroad. Abbeville Press, 1997. Pages 57–8, 242.
  • Lehmann-Barclay, Lucie. "Public Art, Private Prejudice." Christian Science Monitor, 7 January 2005, p. 11.
  • "New Painting At Boston Public Library Stirs Jews to Vigorous Protest." Boston Globe, 9 November 1919, p. 48.
  • Noël, Benoît et Jean Hournon: Portrait de Madame X in Parisiana – la Capitale des arts au XIXème siècle, Les Presses Franciliennes, Paris, 2006. pp. 100–105.
  • Ormond, Richard: "Sargent's Art" in John Singer Sargent, pp. 25–7. Tate Gallery, 1998.
  • Prettejohn, Elizabeth: Interpreting Sargent, page 9. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1998.
  • Promey, Sally M. "John Singer Sargent's Triumph of Religion at the Boston Public Library." http://www.bpl.org/central/sargenttriumph.htm
  • Rewald, John: Camille Pissarro: Letters to his Son Lucien, page 183. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.

Further reading

External links

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John Singer Sargent


Marie-Louise Joubert by
Francois-Xavier Fabre
Inspired Joel Toft to do this painting  (741)
Oil on canvas
310 x 400 cm

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Francois-Xavier Fabre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2015-08-03


Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0a/Henry_Vassall-Fox_3rd_Baron_Holland_%281795%29.jpg/275px-Henry_Vassall-Fox_3rd_Baron_Holland_%281795%29.jpg

Portrait of Lord Holland by François-Xavier Fabre, painted in 1795

François-Xavier Fabre (1 April 1766 – 16 March 1837) was a French painter of historical subjects.

Born in Montpellier, Fabre was a pupil of Jacques-Louis David, and made his name by winning the Prix de Rome in 1787. During the French Revolution, he went to live in Florence, becoming a member of the Florentine Academy and a teacher of art. The friends he made in Italy included the dramatist, Vittorio Alfieri, whose widow, Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern, Countess of Albany, he is said to have married. On Louise's death in 1824, he inherited her fortune, which he used to found an art school in his home town. On his own death, he bequeathed his own art collection to the town, forming the basis of the Musée Fabre.



Fabre began his training in the Montpellier's art academy, where he spent several years prior to joining Jacques-Louis David's studio in Paris. His studies were paid for by the financier and art collector, Philippe-Laurent de Joubert. Philippe-Laurent was the father of Laurent-Nicolas de Joubert. Fabre painted a portrait of Laurent-Nicolas de Joubert, which is now in the Getty Museum. Fabre gained popularity in Florence. The city's Italian aristocrats and tourists were drawn to his elegance, realism, and precision of his portraits. This popularity earned Fabre a place in the Florentine Academy. He became an art teacher, art collector, and art dealer in Florence.[1]

Fabre's works include The Dying Saint Sebastian (1789), The Judgment of Paris (1808), and The Death of Narcissus (1814).

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c9/Fran%C3%A7ois-Xavier_Fabre_-_Portrait_de_Edgar_Clarke.jpg/220px-Fran%C3%A7ois-Xavier_Fabre_-_Portrait_de_Edgar_Clarke.jpg

Portrait of Edgar Clarke by François-Xavier Fabre.

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Fran%C3%A7ois-Xavier_Fabre_-_Portrait_of_Vittorio_Alfieri_-_WGA7714.jpg/220px-Fran%C3%A7ois-Xavier_Fabre_-_Portrait_of_Vittorio_Alfieri_-_WGA7714.jpg

Fabre's portrait of Vittorio Alfieri.

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Fabre_-_Portrait_de_la_g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rale_Clarke_avec_ses_quatre_enfants%2C_1810.jpg/220px-Fabre_-_Portrait_de_la_g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rale_Clarke_avec_ses_quatre_enfants%2C_1810.jpg

Portrait of Mrs Clarke with her Four Children, 1810.


Man in oriental costume by
Rembrandt van Rijn
Inspired Joel Toft to do this painting
Oil on canvas
24 x 32 cm

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Rembrand van Rijn

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2015-08-03


Description: Rembrandt van Rijn - Self-Portrait - Google Art Project.jpg

Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar (1659), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.


Rembrant Harmenszoon van Rijn
(1606-07-15)15 July 1606
Leiden, Dutch Republic (now Netherlands)


4 October 1669(1669-10-04) (aged 63)
Amsterdam, Dutch Republic (now Netherlands)



Known for

Painting, Printmaking

Notable work

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632
Belshazzar's Feast, 1635
The Night Watch, 1642
Bathsheba at Her Bath, 1654
Syndics of the Drapers' Guild, 1662


Dutch Golden Age

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (/ˈrɛmbrænt, -brɑːnt/;[2] Dutch: [ˈrɛmbrɑnt ˈɦɑrmə(n)soːn vɑn ˈrɛin] (Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Speaker_Icon.svg/13px-Speaker_Icon.svg.png listen); 15 July 1606[1] – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history.[3] His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative, and gave rise to important new genres in painting.



Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high,[4] and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters.[5] Rembrandt's greatest creative triumphs are exemplified especially in his portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.[3]

In his paintings and prints he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population.[6] Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization."[7]


Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_139.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_139.jpg

The Prodigal Son in the Tavern, a self-portrait with Saskia, c. 1635

Rembrandt[8] Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden,[1] in the Dutch Republic, now the Netherlands. He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck.[9] His family was quite well-to-do; his father was a miller and his mother was a baker's daughter. Religion is a central theme in Rembrandt's paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest. His mother was Roman Catholic, and his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church. While his work reveals deep Christian faith, there is no evidence that Rembrandt formally belonged to any church, although he had five of his children christened in Dutch Reformed churches in Amsterdam: four in the Oude Kerk (Old Church) and one, Titus, in the Zuiderkerk (Southern Church).[10]

As a boy he attended Latin school and was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting; he was soon apprenticed to a Leiden history painter, Jacob van Swanenburgh, with whom he spent three years.[11] After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt stayed a few months with Jacob Pynas and then started his own workshop, though Simon van Leeuwen claimed that Joris van Schooten taught Rembrandt in Leiden.[11][12] Rembrandt opened a studio in Leiden in 1624 or 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens. In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou.[13]

In 1629 Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens (father of the Dutch mathematician and physicist Christiaan Huygens), who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of The Hague. As a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646.[14]

At the end of 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam, then rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, and began to practice as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success. He initially stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, and in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburgh.[15][16] Saskia came from a good family: her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester (mayor) of Leeuwarden. When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. Rembrandt and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandt's relatives.[17] In the same year, Rembrandt became a burgess of Amsterdam and a member of the local guild of painters. He also acquired a number of students, among them Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck.[18]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Rembrandt_van_Rijn_-_Saskia_van_Uylenburgh%2C_the_Wife_of_the_Artist_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_van_Rijn_-_Saskia_van_Uylenburgh%2C_the_Wife_of_the_Artist_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Portrait of Saskia van Uylenburgh, ca. 1635

In 1635 Rembrandt and Saskia moved into their own house, renting in fashionable Nieuwe Doelenstraat. In 1639 they moved to a prominent newly built house (now the Rembrandt House Museum) in the upscale 'Breestraat' (eng.: 'Broadway'), today known as Jodenbreestraat (Jodenbreestraat 4,1011 NK Amsterdam-now) in what was becoming the Jewish quarter; then a young upcoming neighborhood. The mortgage to finance the 13,000 guilder purchase would be a primary cause for later financial difficulties.[18] Rembrandt should easily have been able to pay the house off with his large income, but it appears his spending always kept pace with his income, and he may have made some unsuccessful investments.[19] It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbors to model for his Old Testament scenes.[20] Although they were by now affluent, the couple suffered several personal setbacks; their son Rumbartus died two months after his birth in 1635 and their daughter Cornelia died at just three weeks of age in 1638. In 1640, they had a second daughter, also named Cornelia, who died after living barely over a month. Only their fourth child, Titus, who was born in 1641, survived into adulthood. Saskia died in 1642 soon after Titus's birth, probably from tuberculosis. Rembrandt's drawings of her on her sick and death bed are among his most moving works.[21]

During Saskia's illness, Geertje Dircx was hired as Titus' caretaker and nurse and also became Rembrandt's lover. She would later charge Rembrandt with breach of promise and was awarded alimony of 200 guilders a year.[18] Rembrandt worked to have her committed for twelve years to an asylum or poorhouse (called a "bridewell") at Gouda, after learning she had pawned jewelry that had once belonged to Saskia and that he had given to her.[22]

In the late 1640s Rembrandt began a relationship with the much younger Hendrickje Stoffels, who had initially been his maid. In 1654 they had a daughter, Cornelia, bringing Hendrickje a summons from the Reformed Church to answer the charge "that she had committed the acts of a whore with Rembrandt the painter". She admitted this and was banned from receiving communion. Rembrandt was not summoned to appear for the Church council because he was not a member of the Reformed Church.[23] The two were considered legally wed under common law, but Rembrandt had not married Hendrickje. Had he remarried he would have lost access to a trust set up for Titus in Saskia's will.[21]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_103.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_103.jpg

Rembrandt's son Titus, as a monk, 1660

Rembrandt lived beyond his means, buying art (including bidding up his own work), prints (often used in his paintings) and rarities, which probably caused a court arrangement to avoid his bankruptcy in 1656, by selling most of his paintings and large collection of antiquities. The sale list survives and gives us a good insight into Rembrandt's collections, which, apart from Old Master paintings and drawings, included busts of the Roman Emperors, suits of Japanese armor among many objects from Asia, and collections of natural history and minerals. But the prices realized in the sales in 1657 and 1658 were disappointing.[24] Rembrandt was forced to sell his house and his printing-press and move to more modest accommodation on the Rozengracht in 1660.[25] The authorities and his creditors were generally accommodating to him, except for the Amsterdam painters' guild, which introduced a new rule that no one in Rembrandt's circumstances could trade as a painter. To get around this, Hendrickje and Titus set up a business as art dealers in 1660, with Rembrandt as an employee.[26]

In 1661 Rembrandt (or rather the new business) was contracted to complete work for the newly built city hall, but only after Govert Flinck, the artist previously commissioned, died without beginning to paint. The resulting work, The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis, was rejected and returned to the painter; the surviving fragment is only a fraction of the whole work.[27] It was around this time that Rembrandt took on his last apprentice, Aert de Gelder. In 1662 he was still fulfilling major commissions for portraits and other works.[28] When Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany came to Amsterdam in 1667, he visited Rembrandt at his house.[29]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/Rembrandt_Memorial_Marker_Westerkerk_Amsterdam.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_Memorial_Marker_Westerkerk_Amsterdam.jpg

Rembrandt Memorial Marker Westerkerk Amsterdam

Rembrandt outlived both Hendrickje, who died in 1663, and Titus, who died in 1668, leaving a baby daughter. He died within a year of his son, on 4 October 1669 in Amsterdam, and was buried in an unknown grave in the Westerkerk. It was in a numbered 'kerkgraf' (grave owned by the church) somewhere under a tombstone in the church. After twenty years, his remains were taken away and destroyed. That was customary with the remains of poor people at that time. Rembrandt was buried as a poor man.[30][31]


See also: List of paintings by Rembrandt, List of etchings by Rembrandt and List of drawings by Rembrandt

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Rembrandt_Christ_in_the_Storm_on_the_Lake_of_Galilee.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_Christ_in_the_Storm_on_the_Lake_of_Galilee.jpg

The Storm on the Sea of Galilee, 1633. The painting is still missing after the robbery from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in 1990.

In a letter to Huygens, Rembrandt offered the only surviving explanation of what he sought to achieve through his art: the greatest and most natural movement, translated from de meeste en de natuurlijkste beweegelijkheid. The word "beweechgelickhijt" is also argued to mean "emotion" or "motive." Whether this refers to objectives, material or otherwise, is open to interpretation; either way, critics have drawn particular attention to the way Rembrandt seamlessly melded the earthly and spiritual.[32]

Earlier 20th century connoisseurs claimed Rembrandt had produced over 600 paintings, nearly 400 etchings and 2,000 drawings.[33] More recent scholarship, from the 1960s to the present day (led by the Rembrandt Research Project), often controversially, has winnowed his oeuvre to nearer 300 paintings.[34] His prints, traditionally all called etchings, although many are produced in whole or part by engraving and sometimes drypoint, have a much more stable total of slightly under 300.[35] It is likely Rembrandt made many more drawings in his lifetime than 2,000, but those extant are more rare than presumed.[36] Two experts claim that the number of drawings whose autograph status can be regarded as effectively "certain" is no higher than about 75, although this is disputed. The list was to be unveiled at a scholarly meeting in February 2010.[37]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Rembrandt_van_Rijn_-_A_Polish_nobleman.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_van_Rijn_-_A_Polish_nobleman.jpg

A Polish Nobleman, 1637

At one time about ninety paintings were counted as Rembrandt self-portraits, but it is now known that he had his students copy his own self-portraits as part of their training. Modern scholarship has reduced the autograph count to over forty paintings, as well as a few drawings and thirty-one etchings, which include many of the most remarkable images of the group.[38] Some show him posing in quasi-historical fancy dress, or pulling faces at himself. His oil paintings trace the progress from an uncertain young man, through the dapper and very successful portrait-painter of the 1630s, to the troubled but massively powerful portraits of his old age. Together they give a remarkably clear picture of the man, his appearance and his psychological make-up, as revealed by his richly weathered face.[39]

In his portraits and self-portraits, he angles the sitter's face in such a way that the ridge of the nose nearly always forms the line of demarcation between brightly illuminated and shadowy areas. A Rembrandt face is a face partially eclipsed; and the nose, bright and obvious, thrusting into the riddle of halftones, serves to focus the viewer's attention upon, and to dramatize, the division between a flood of light—an overwhelming clarity—and a brooding duskiness.[40]

In a number of biblical works, including The Raising of the Cross, Joseph Telling His Dreams and The Stoning of Saint Stephen, Rembrandt painted himself as a character in the crowd. Durham suggests that this was because the Bible was for Rembrandt "a kind of diary, an account of moments in his own life."[41]

Among the more prominent characteristics of Rembrandt's work are his use of chiaroscuro, the theatrical employment of light and shadow derived from Caravaggio, or, more likely, from the Dutch Caravaggisti, but adapted for very personal means.[42] Also notable are his dramatic and lively presentation of subjects, devoid of the rigid formality that his contemporaries often displayed, and a deeply felt compassion for mankind, irrespective of wealth and age. His immediate family—his wife Saskia, his son Titus and his common-law wife Hendrickje—often figured prominently in his paintings, many of which had mythical, biblical or historical themes.

Periods, themes and styles

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_-_The_Abduction_of_Europa_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_-_The_Abduction_of_Europa_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

The Abduction of Europa, 1632. Oil on panel. The work has been described as "...a shining example of the 'golden age' of Baroque painting."[43]

Throughout his career Rembrandt took as his primary subjects the themes of portraiture, landscape and narrative painting. For the last, he was especially praised by his contemporaries, who extolled him as a masterly interpreter of biblical stories for his skill in representing emotions and attention to detail.[44] Stylistically, his paintings progressed from the early "smooth" manner, characterized by fine technique in the portrayal of illusionistic form, to the late "rough" treatment of richly variegated paint surfaces, which allowed for an illusionism of form suggested by the tactile quality of the paint itself.[45]

A parallel development may be seen in Rembrandt's skill as a printmaker. In the etchings of his maturity, particularly from the late 1640s onward, the freedom and breadth of his drawings and paintings found expression in the print medium as well. The works encompass a wide range of subject matter and technique, sometimes leaving large areas of white paper to suggest space, at other times employing complex webs of line to produce rich dark tones.[46]

It was during Rembrandt's Leiden period (1625–1631) that Lastman's influence was most prominent. It is also likely that at this time Lievens had a strong impact on his work as well.[47] Paintings were rather small, but rich in details (for example, in costumes and jewelry). Religious and allegorical themes were favored, as were tronies.[47] In 1626 Rembrandt produced his first etchings, the wide dissemination of which would largely account for his international fame.[47] In 1629 he completed Judas Repentant, Returning the Pieces of Silver and The Artist in His Studio, works that evidence his interest in the handling of light and variety of paint application, and constitute the first major progress in his development as a painter.[48]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2a/Rembrandt%2C_Portret_van_Haesje_v.Cleyburg_1634_2.jpg/170px-Rembrandt%2C_Portret_van_Haesje_v.Cleyburg_1634_2.jpg

A typical portrait from 1634, when Rembrandt was enjoying great commercial success

During his early years in Amsterdam (1632–1636), Rembrandt began to paint dramatic biblical and mythological scenes in high contrast and of large format (The Blinding of Samson, 1636, Belshazzar's Feast, c. 1635 Danaë, 1636), seeking to emulate the baroque style of Rubens.[49] With the occasional help of assistants in Uylenburgh's workshop, he painted numerous portrait commissions both small (Jacob de Gheyn III) and large (Portrait of the Shipbuilder Jan Rijcksen and his Wife, 1633, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632).[50]

By the late 1630s Rembrandt had produced a few paintings and many etchings of landscapes. Often these landscapes highlighted natural drama, featuring uprooted trees and ominous skies (Cottages before a Stormy Sky, c. 1641; The Three Trees, 1643). From 1640 his work became less exuberant and more sober in tone, possibly reflecting personal tragedy. Biblical scenes were now derived more often from the New Testament than the Old Testament, as had been the case before. In 1642 he painted The Night Watch, the most substantial of the important group portrait commissions which he received in this period, and through which he sought to find solutions to compositional and narrative problems that had been attempted in previous works.[51]

In the decade following the Night Watch, Rembrandt's paintings varied greatly in size, subject, and style. The previous tendency to create dramatic effects primarily by strong contrasts of light and shadow gave way to the use of frontal lighting and larger and more saturated areas of color. Simultaneously, figures came to be placed parallel to the picture plane. These changes can be seen as a move toward a classical mode of composition and, considering the more expressive use of brushwork as well, may indicate a familiarity with Venetian art (Susanna and the Elders, 1637–47).[52] At the same time, there was a marked decrease in painted works in favor of etchings and drawings of landscapes.[53] In these graphic works natural drama eventually made way for quiet Dutch rural scenes.

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/Rembrandt_-_Zelfportret_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg/170px-Rembrandt_-_Zelfportret_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Self Portrait, 1658, Frick Collection, a masterpiece of the final style, "the calmest and grandest of all his portraits"[54]

In the 1650s, Rembrandt's style changed again. Colors became richer and brush strokes more pronounced. With these changes, Rembrandt distanced himself from earlier work and current fashion, which increasingly inclined toward fine, detailed works. His use of light becomes more jagged and harsh, and shine becomes almost nonexistent. His singular approach to paint application may have been suggested in part by familiarity with the work of Titian, and could be seen in the context of the then current discussion of 'finish' and surface quality of paintings. Contemporary accounts sometimes remark disapprovingly of the coarseness of Rembrandt's brushwork, and the artist himself was said to have dissuaded visitors from looking too closely at his paintings.[55] The tactile manipulation of paint may hearken to medieval procedures, when mimetic effects of rendering informed a painting's surface. The end result is a richly varied handling of paint, deeply layered and often apparently haphazard, which suggests form and space in both an illusory and highly individual manner.[56]

In later years biblical themes were still depicted often, but emphasis shifted from dramatic group scenes to intimate portrait-like figures (James the Apostle, 1661). In his last years, Rembrandt painted his most deeply reflective self-portraits (from 1652 to 1669 he painted fifteen), and several moving images of both men and women (The Jewish Bride, c. 1666)—in love, in life, and before God.[57][58]


Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Rembrandt_-_The_windmill_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_-_The_windmill_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

The Windmill, etching

Rembrandt produced etchings for most of his career, from 1626 to 1660, when he was forced to sell his printing-press and practically abandoned etching. Only the troubled year of 1649 produced no dated work.[59] He took easily to etching and, though he also learned to use a burin and partly engraved many plates, the freedom of etching technique was fundamental to his work. He was very closely involved in the whole process of printmaking, and must have printed at least early examples of his etchings himself. At first he used a style based on drawing, but soon moved to one based on painting, using a mass of lines and numerous bitings with the acid to achieve different strengths of line. Towards the end of the 1630s, he reacted against this manner and moved to a simpler style, with fewer bitings.[60] He worked on the so-called Hundred Guilder Print in stages throughout the 1640s, and it was the "critical work in the middle of his career", from which his final etching style began to emerge.[61] Although the print only survives in two states, the first very rare, evidence of much reworking can be seen underneath the final print and many drawings survive for elements of it.[62]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2b/Die_landschaft_mit_den_drei_baeumen.jpg/220px-Die_landschaft_mit_den_drei_baeumen.jpg

The three trees, 1643, etching

In the mature works of the 1650s, Rembrandt was more ready to improvise on the plate and large prints typically survive in several states, up to eleven, often radically changed. He now uses hatching to create his dark areas, which often take up much of the plate. He also experimented with the effects of printing on different kinds of paper, including Japanese paper, which he used frequently, and on vellum. He began to use "surface tone," leaving a thin film of ink on parts of the plate instead of wiping it completely clean to print each impression. He made more use of drypoint, exploiting, especially in landscapes, the rich fuzzy burr that this technique gives to the first few impressions.[63]

His prints have similar subjects to his paintings, although the twenty-seven self-portraits are relatively more common, and portraits of other people less so. There are forty-six landscapes, mostly small, which largely set the course for the graphic treatment of landscape until the end of the 19th century. One third of his etchings are of religious subjects, many treated with a homely simplicity, whilst others are his most monumental prints. A few erotic, or just obscene, compositions have no equivalent in his paintings.[64] He owned, until forced to sell it, a magnificent collection of prints by other artists, and many borrowings and influences in his work can be traced to artists as diverse as Mantegna, Raphael, Hercules Seghers, and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione.

The Night Watch

Main article: The Night Watch

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/The_Nightwatch_by_Rembrandt.jpg/300px-The_Nightwatch_by_Rembrandt.jpg

The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Rembrandt painted the large painting The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq between 1640 and 1642. This picture was called De Nachtwacht by the Dutch and The Night Watch by Sir Joshua Reynolds because by the 18th century the picture was so dimmed and defaced that it was almost indistinguishable, and it looked quite like a night scene. After it was cleaned, it was discovered to represent broad day—a party of musketeers stepping from a gloomy courtyard into the blinding sunlight.

The piece was commissioned for the new hall of the Kloveniersdoelen, the musketeer branch of the civic militia. Rembrandt departed from convention, which ordered that such genre pieces should be stately and formal, rather a line-up than an action scene. Instead he showed the militia readying themselves to embark on a mission (what kind of mission, an ordinary patrol or some special event, is a matter of debate).

Contrary to what is often said, the work was hailed as a success from the beginning. Parts of the canvas were cut off (approximately 20% from the left hand side was removed) to make the painting fit its new position when it was moved to Amsterdam town hall in 1715; the Rijksmuseum has a smaller copy of what is thought to be the full original composition; the four figures in the front are at the centre of the canvas. The painting is now in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.[65]

Expert assessments

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Rembrandt_-_De_Poolse_ruiter%2C_c.1655_%28Frick_Collection%29.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_-_De_Poolse_ruiter%2C_c.1655_%28Frick_Collection%29.jpg

The Polish Rider – Possibly a Lisowczyk on horseback.

In 1968 the Rembrandt Research Project began under the sponsorship of the Netherlands Organization for the Advancement of Scientific Research; it was initially expected to last a highly optimistic ten years. Art historians teamed up with experts from other fields to reassess the authenticity of works attributed to Rembrandt, using all methods available, including state-of-the-art technical diagnostics, and to compile a complete new catalogue raisonné of his paintings. As a result of their findings, many paintings that were previously attributed to Rembrandt have been removed from their list, although others have been added back.[66] Many of those removed are now thought to be the work of his students.

One example of activity is The Polish Rider, in New York's Frick Collection. Rembrandt's authorship had been questioned by at least one scholar, Alfred von Wurzbach, at the beginning of the twentieth century, but for many decades later most scholars, including the foremost authority writing in English, Julius S. Held, agreed that it was indeed by the master. In the 1980s, however, Dr. Josua Bruyn of the Foundation Rembrandt Research Project cautiously and tentatively attributed the painting to one of Rembrandt's closest and most talented pupils, Willem Drost, about whom little is known. But Bruyn's remained a minority opinion, the suggestion of Drost's authorship is now generally rejected, and the Frick itself never changed its own attribution, the label still reading "Rembrandt" and not "attributed to" or "school of". More recent opinion has shifted even more decisively in favor of the Frick, with Simon Schama (in his 1999 book Rembrandt's Eyes) and the Rembrandt Project scholar Ernst van de Wetering (Melbourne Symposium, 1997) both arguing for attribution to the master. Those few scholars who still question Rembrandt's authorship feel that the execution is uneven, and favour different attributions for different parts of the work.[67]

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Mann_mit_dem_Goldhelm.jpg/220px-Mann_mit_dem_Goldhelm.jpg

Man in a Golden helmet, Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, once one of the most famous "Rembrandt" portraits, no longer attributed to the master

A similar issue was raised by Simon Schama in his book Rembrandt's Eyes concerning the verification of titles associated with the subject matter depicted in Rembrandt's works. For example, the exact subject being portrayed in Aristotle with a Bust of Homer (recently retitled by curators at the Metropolitan Museum) has been directly challenged by Schama applying the scholarship of Paul Crenshaw.[68] Schama presents a substantial argument that it was the famous ancient Greek painter Apelles who is depicted in contemplation by Rembrandt and not Aristotle.[69]

Another painting, Pilate Washing His Hands, is also of questionable attribution. Critical opinion of this picture has varied since 1905, when Wilhelm von Bode described it as "a somewhat abnormal work" by Rembrandt. Scholars have since dated the painting to the 1660s and assigned it to an anonymous pupil, possibly Aert de Gelder. The composition bears superficial resemblance to mature works by Rembrandt but lacks the master's command of illumination and modeling.[70]

The attribution and re-attribution work is ongoing. In 2005 four oil paintings previously attributed to Rembrandt's students were reclassified as the work of Rembrandt himself: Study of an Old Man in Profile and Study of an Old Man with a Beard from a US private collection, Study of a Weeping Woman, owned by the Detroit Institute of Arts, and Portrait of an Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet, painted in 1640.[71]

Rembrandt's own studio practice is a major factor in the difficulty of attribution, since, like many masters before him, he encouraged his students to copy his paintings, sometimes finishing or retouching them to be sold as originals, and sometimes selling them as authorized copies. Additionally, his style proved easy enough for his most talented students to emulate. Further complicating matters is the uneven quality of some of Rembrandt's own work, and his frequent stylistic evolutions and experiments.[72] As well, there were later imitations of his work, and restorations which so seriously damaged the original works that they are no longer recognizable.[73] It is highly likely that there will never be universal agreement as to what does and what does not constitute a genuine Rembrandt.

Painting materials

Technical investigation of Rembrandt's paintings in the possession of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister[74] and in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Kassel)[75] has been conducted by Hermann Kühn in 1977. The pigment analyses of some thirty paintings have shown that Rembrandt's palette consisted of the following pigments: lead white, various ochres, Vandyke brown, bone black, charcoal black, lamp black, vermilion, madder lake, azurite, ultramarine, yellow lake and lead-tin-yellow. One painting (Saskia van Uylenburgh as Flora)[76] reportedly contains gamboge. Rembrandt very rarely used pure blue or green colors, the most pronounced exception being Belshazzar's Feast[77][78] in the National Gallery in London. The book by Bomford (above reference) describes more recent technical investigations and pigment analyses of Rembrandt's paintings predominantly in the National Gallery in London. The best source for technical information on Rembrandt's paintings on the web is the Rembrandt Database containing all works of Rembrandt with detailed investigative reports, infrared and radiography images and other scientific details.[79]

Name and signature

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Rembrandt%2C_bue_squartato%2C_1655%2C_02.JPG/170px-Rembrandt%2C_bue_squartato%2C_1655%2C_02.JPG

Slaughtered Ox, (1655), Musée du Louvre, Paris

"Rembrandt" is a modification of the spelling of the artist's first name that he introduced in 1633. Roughly speaking, his earliest signatures (ca. 1625) consisted of an initial "R", or the monogram "RH" (for Rembrant Harmenszoon; i.e. "Rembrant, the son of Harmen"), and starting in 1629, "RHL" (the "L" stood, presumably, for Leiden). In 1632, he used this monogram early in the year, then added his family name to it, "RHL-van Rijn", but replaced this form in that same year and began using his first name alone with its original spelling, "Rembrant". In 1633 he added a "d", and maintained this form consistently from then on, proving that this minor change had a meaning for him (whatever it might have been). This change is purely visual; it does not change the way his name is pronounced. Curiously enough, despite the large number of paintings and etchings signed with this modified first name, most of their documents that mentioned him during his lifetime retained the original "Rembrant" spelling. (Note: the rough chronology of signature forms above applies to the paintings, and to a lesser degree to the etchings; from 1632, presumably, there is only one etching signed "RHL-v. Rijn," the large-format "Raising of Lazarus," B 73).[80] His practice of signing his work with his first name, later followed by Vincent van Gogh, was probably inspired by Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo who, then as now, were referred to by their first names alone.[81]


Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Rembrandt_-_Saskia_van_Uylenburgh_in_Arcadian_Costume_-_WGA19164.jpg/220px-Rembrandt_-_Saskia_van_Uylenburgh_in_Arcadian_Costume_-_WGA19164.jpg

Saskia as Flora, 1635

Rembrandt ran a large workshop and had many pupils. The list of Rembrandt pupils from his period in Leiden as well as his time in Amsterdam is quite long, mostly because his influence on painters around him was so great that it is difficult to tell whether someone worked for him in his studio or just copied his style for patrons eager to acquire a Rembrandt. A partial list should include[82] Ferdinand Bol, Adriaen Brouwer, Gerrit Dou, Willem Drost, Heiman Dullaart, Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Carel Fabritius, Govert Flinck, Hendrick Fromantiou, Aert de Gelder, Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten, Abraham Janssens, Godfrey Kneller, Philip de Koninck, Jacob Levecq, Nicolaes Maes, Jürgen Ovens, Christopher Paudiß, Willem de Poorter, Jan Victors, and Willem van der Vliet.

Museum collections

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Rembrandts_house%2C_Amsterdam.jpg/190px-Rembrandts_house%2C_Amsterdam.jpg

Rembrandt House Museum

The most notable collections of Rembrandt's work are at Amsterdam's Rijksmuseum, including The Night Watch and The Jewish Bride, the Mauritshuis in The Hague, the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, the National Gallery in London, Gemäldegalerie in Berlin, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, The Louvre, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, and Schloss Wilhelmshöhe in Kassel. The Royal Castle in Warsaw displays two paintings by Rembrandt from Lanckoroński collection in a separate, dedicated room of Renaissance Courtier Lodgings.[83]

Notable collections of Rembrandt's paintings in the USA are in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Frick Collection in New York City, and the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.[84]

The Rembrandt House Museum in central Amsterdam in the house he bought at the height of his success has furnishings that are mostly not original, but period pieces comparable to those Rembrandt might have had, and paintings reflecting Rembrandt's use of the house for art dealing. His printmaking studio has been set up with a printing press, where replica prints are printed. The museum has a few Rembrandt paintings, many loaned, but an important collection of his prints, a good selection of which are on rotating display. All major print rooms have large collections of Rembrandt prints, although as some exist in only a single impression, no collection is complete. The degree to which these collections are displayed to the public, or can easily be viewed by them in the print room, varies greatly.

Selected works

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Rembrandt_Girl_in_a_Picture_Frame.jpg/170px-Rembrandt_Girl_in_a_Picture_Frame.jpg

The Girl in a Picture Frame, 1641, Royal Castle, Warsaw

Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_049.jpg/170px-Rembrandt_Harmensz._van_Rijn_049.jpg

The evangelist Matthew and the angel, 1661


  • Feb 12, 2015 - May 17, 2015: Late Rembrandt, The Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.[85]
  • Oct 15, 2014 - Jan 18, 2015: Rembrandt: The Late Works, The National Gallery, London.[86]
  • Oct 19, 2014 - Jan 4, 2015: Rembrandt, Rubens, Gainsborough and the Golden Age of Painting in Europe, Jule Collins Smith Museum of Art.[87]
  • May 19, 2014 - Jun 27, 2014: From Rembrandt to Rosenquist: Works on Paper from the NAC's Permanent Collection, National Arts Club.[88]
  • Sep 16, 2013 - Nov 14, 2013: Rembrandt: The Consummate Etcher, Syracuse University Art Galleries.[89]
  • Apr 21, 2011 - Jul 18, 2011: Rembrandt and the Face of Jesus, Musée du Louvre.[90]



Main article: Self-portraits by Rembrandt

A young Rembrandt, c. 1628, when he was 22. Partly an exercise in chiaroscuro. Rijksmuseum

Self-portrait, c. 1629; Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg

Self-portrait, 1630, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

Self-Portrait with Velvet Beret and Furred Mantel 1634

Self-portrait, at 34, 1640

Self-Portrait, oil on canvas, 1652. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Self-portrait, Vienna c. 1655, oil on walnut, cut down in size. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Self-Portrait, 1660

Self-Portrait with Two Circles, 1660. Kenwood House, London

Self-Portrait as Zeuxis, c. 1662. One of 2 painted self-portraits in which Rembrandt is turned to the left.[91] Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne

Self-portrait, 1669.

Self-portrait, dated 1669, the year he died, though he looks much older in other portraits. National Gallery, London

Other works

The Stoning of Saint Stephen, 1625, The first painting by Rembrandt, painted at the age of 19.[92] It is currently kept in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon.

Bust of an old man with a fur hat, the artist's father, 1630

  • Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem, c. 1630
  • Description: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Rembrandt_-_The_Philosopher_in_Meditation.jpg/170px-Rembrandt_-_The_Philosopher_in_Meditation.jpg

The Philosopher in Meditation, 1632

Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632

Abraham and Isaac, 1634

The Blinding of Samson, 1636, which Rembrandt gave to Huyghens

Saskia in red hat, 1635

Susanna, 1636

Belshassar's Feast, 1636-8

The Archangel leaving Tobias, 1637

The Landscape with Good Samaritan, 1638

Susanna and the Elders, 1647

The Mill, 1648

An Old Man in Red, 1652-1654

Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, 1653, Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York

Young Girl at the Window, 1654

Portrait of the later mayor Jan Six, a wealthy friend of Rembrandt, 1654

Bathsheba at Her Bath, modeled after Hendrickje, 1654

Woman Bathing in a Stream, 1655

Woman in a Doorway, 1657-1658

Ahasuerus and Haman at the Feast of Esther, 1660

Saint Bartholomew, 1661, J. Paul Getty Museum

The Syndics of the Drapers' Guild, 1662

The Return of the Prodigal Son, detail, c. 1669

Drawings and etchings

Self-portrait in a cap, with eyes wide open, etching and burin, 1630

Self-portrait, pen and brush and ink on paper, c. 1628-1629

Role-playing in Self-portrait as an oriental Potentate with a Kris, etching, 1634

Suzannah and the Elders, drawing, 1634

Self-portrait with Saskia, etching, 1636

Self-portrait leaning on a Sill, etching, 1639

Christ and the woman taken in adultery, drawing

Virgin and Child with a Cat, 1654. Original copper etching plate above, example of the print below

An elephant 1637

Christ presented to the People, drypoint, 1655, State I of VIII


    1. ^ Jump up to: a b c Or possibly 1607 as on 10 June 1634 he himself claimed to be 26 years old. See Is the Rembrandt Year being celebrated one year too soon? One year too late? and (Dutch) J. de Jong, Rembrandts geboortejaar een jaar te vroeg gevierd for sources concerning Rembrandts birth year, especially supporting 1607. However most sources continue to use 1606.
    2. Jump up ^ "Rembrandt". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    3. ^ Jump up to: a b Gombrich, p. 420.
    4. Jump up ^ Gombrich, p. 427.
    5. Jump up ^ Clark 1969, pp. 203
    6. Jump up ^ Clark 1969, pp. 203–204
    7. Jump up ^ Clark 1969, pp. 205
    8. Jump up ^ This version of his first name, "Rembrandt" with a "d," first appeared in his signatures in 1633. Until then, he had signed with a combination of initials or monograms. In late 1632, he began signing solely with his first name, "Rembrant." He added the "d" in the following year and stuck to this spelling for the rest of his life. Although we can only speculate, this change must have had a meaning for Rembrandt, which is generally interpreted as his wanting to be known by his first name like the great figures of the Italian Renaissance: Leonardo, Raphael etc., (who did not sign with their first names, if at all). Rembrandt-signature-file.com
    9. Jump up ^ Bull, et al., p. 28.
    10. Jump up ^ "Doopregisters, Zoek" (in Dutch). Stadsarchief.amsterdam.nl. 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2014-04-07. 
    11. ^ Jump up to: a b (Dutch) Rembrandt biography in De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen (1718) by Arnold Houbraken, courtesy of the Digital library for Dutch literature
    12. Jump up ^ Joris van Schooten as teacher of Rembrandt and Lievens in Simon van Leeuwen's Korte besgryving van het Lugdunum Batavorum nu Leyden, Leiden, 1672
    13. Jump up ^ Slive has a comprehensive biography, p.55 ff.
    14. Jump up ^ Slive, pp. 60, 65
    15. Jump up ^ Slive, pp. 60–61
    16. Jump up ^ "Netherlands, Noord-Holland Province, Church Records, 1553-1909 Image Netherlands, Noord-Holland Province, Church Records, 1553-1909; pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-31164-16374-68 —". Familysearch.org. Retrieved 2014-04-07. 
    17. Jump up ^ Registration of the banns of Rembrandt and Saskia, kept at the Amsterdam City Archives
    18. ^ Jump up to: a b c Bull, et al., p. 28
    19. Jump up ^ Clark, 1978, pp. 26–7, 76, 102
    20. Jump up ^ Adams, p. 660
    21. ^ Jump up to: a b Slive, p. 71
    22. Jump up ^ Driessen, p. 151-157
    23. Jump up ^ Slive, p.82
    24. Jump up ^ Slive, p. 84
    25. Jump up ^ Schwartz, p. 12. The house sale was in 1658, but was agreed with two years for Rembrandt to vacate.
    26. Jump up ^ Clark, 1974 p. 105
    27. Jump up ^ Clark 1974, pp. 60–61
    28. Jump up ^ Bull, et al., page 29.
    29. Jump up ^ Clark 1978, p. 34
    30. Jump up ^ Slive, p. 83
    31. Jump up ^ Burial register of the Westerkerk with record of Rembrandt's burial, kept at the Amsterdam City Archives
    32. Jump up ^ Hughes, p. 6
    33. Jump up ^ Art of Northern Europe, Institute for the Study of Western Civilization.[dead link]
    34. Jump up ^ Useful totals of the figures from various different oeuvre catalogues, often divided into classes along the lines of: "very likely authentic", "possibly authentic" and "unlikely to be authentic" are given at the Online Rembrandt catalogue
    35. Jump up ^ Two hundred years ago Bartsch listed 375. More recent catalogues have added three (two in unique impressions) and excluded enough to reach totals as follows: Schwartz, pp. 6, 289; Münz 1952, p. 279, Boon 1963, pp. 287 Print Council of America[dead link] – but Schwartz's total quoted does not tally with the book.
    36. Jump up ^ It is not possible to give a total, as a new wave of scholarship on Rembrandt drawings is still in progress — analysis of the Berlin collection for an exhibition in 2006/7 has produced a probable drop from 130 sheets there to about 60. Codart.nl The British Museum is due to publish a new catalogue after a similar exercise.
    37. Jump up ^ "Schwartzlist 301 – Blog entry by the Rembrandt scholar Gary Schwartz". Garyschwartzarthistorian.nl. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 
    38. Jump up ^ White and Buvelot 1999, p. 10.
    39. Jump up ^ While the popular interpretation is that these paintings represent a personal and introspective journey, it is possible that they were painted to satisfy a market for self-portraits by prominent artists. Van de Wetering, p. 290.
    40. Jump up ^ Taylor, Michael (2007).Rembrandt's Nose: Of Flesh & Spirit in the Master's Portraits p. 21, D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc., New York ISBN 9781933045443'
    41. Jump up ^ Durham, p. 60.
    42. Jump up ^ Bull, et al., pp. 11–13.
    43. Jump up ^ Clough, p. 23
    44. Jump up ^ van der Wetering, p. 268.
    45. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, pp. 160, 190.
    46. Jump up ^ Ackley, p. 14.
    47. ^ Jump up to: a b c van de Wetering, p. 284.
    48. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, page 285.
    49. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, p. 287.
    50. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, p. 286.
    51. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, p. 288.
    52. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, pp. 163–5.
    53. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, p. 289.
    54. Jump up ^ Clark 1978, p. 28
    55. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, pp. 155–165.
    56. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, pp. 157–8, 190.
    57. Jump up ^ "In Rembrandt's (late) great portraits we feel face to face with real people, we sense their warmth, their need for sympathy and also their loneliness and suffering. Those keen and steady eyes that we know so well from Rembrandt's self-portraits must have been able to look straight into the human heart." Gombrich, p. 423.
    58. Jump up ^ "It (The Jewish Bride) is a picture of grown-up love, a marvelous amalgam of richness, tenderness, and trust... the heads which, in their truth, have a spiritual glow that painters influenced by the classical tradition could never achieve." Clark, p. 206.
    59. Jump up ^ Schwartz, 1994, pp. 8–12
    60. Jump up ^ White 1969, pp. 5–6
    61. Jump up ^ White 1969, p. 6
    62. Jump up ^ White 1969, pp. 6, 9–10
    63. Jump up ^ White, 1969 pp. 6–7
    64. Jump up ^ See Strauss, where the works are divided by subject, following Bartsch.
    65. Jump up ^ From October 2007, the main galleries were closed for renovations, planned to be finished in 2010[dated info], but the Rembrandts are being shown in a nearby adjacent part of the building according to the Rijksmuseum website.
    66. Jump up ^ "The Rembrandt Research Project: Past, Present, Future" (PDF). Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
    67. Jump up ^ See "Further Battles for the 'Lisowczyk' (Polish Rider) by Rembrandt" Zdzislaw Zygulski, Jr., Artibus et Historiae, Vol. 21, No. 41 (2000), pp. 197–205. Also New York Times story. There is a book on the subject:Responses to Rembrandt; Who painted the Polish Rider? by Anthony Bailey (New York, 1993)
    68. Jump up ^ Schama, Simon (1999). Rembrandt's Eyes. Knopf, p. 720.
    69. Jump up ^ Schama, pp 582-591.
    70. Jump up ^ "Rembrandt Pilate Washing His Hands Oil Painting Reproduction". Outpost Art. Retrieved 1 January 2015. 
    71. Jump up ^ "Entertainment | Lost Rembrandt works discovered". BBC News. 23 September 2005. Retrieved 7 October 2009. 
    72. Jump up ^ "...Rembrandt was not always the perfectly consistent, logical Dutchman he was originally anticipated to be." Ackley, p. 13.
    73. Jump up ^ van de Wetering, p. x.
    74. Jump up ^ Kühn, Hermann. ‘Untersuchungen zu den Pigmenten und Malgründen Rembrandts, durchgeführt an den Gemälden der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden’(Examination of pigments and grounds used by Rembrandt, analysis carried out on paintings in the Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden), Maltechnik/Restauro, issue 4 (1977): 223-233
    75. Jump up ^ Kühn, Hermann. ‘Untersuchungen zu den Pigmenten und Malgründen Rembrandts, durchgeführt an den Gemälden der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Kassel’ (Examination of pigments and grounds used by Rembrandt, analysis carried out on paintings in the Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Kassel), Maltechnik/Restauro, volume 82 (1976): 25-33
    76. Jump up ^ Rembrandt, Saskia as Flora, ColourLex
    77. Jump up ^ Bomford, D. et al., Art in the making: Rembrandt, New edition, Yale University Press, 2006
    78. Jump up ^ Rembrandt, Belshazzar's Feast, Pigment analysis at ColourLex
    79. Jump up ^ Rembrandt Database
    80. Jump up ^ Chronology of his signatures (pdf) with examples. Source: www.rembrandt-signature-file.com
    81. Jump up ^ Slive, p. 60
    82. Jump up ^ Rembrandt pupils (under Leraar van) in the RKD
    83. Jump up ^ "The Lanckoroński Collection - Rembrandt's Paintings". www.zamek-krolewski.pl. Retrieved 20 May 2014. The works of art which Karolina Lanckorońska gave to the Royal Castle in 1994 was one of the most invaluable gift’s made in the museum’s history. 
    84. Jump up ^ Clark 1974, pp. 147–50. See the catalogue in Further reading for the location of all accepted Rembrandts
    85. Jump up ^ "Late Rembrandt.".  "MutualArt.com". 
    86. Jump up ^ "Rembrandt: The Late Works.".  "MutualArt.com". 
    87. Jump up ^ "Rembrandt, Rubens, Gainsborough and the Golden Age of Painting in Europe.".  Retrieved Jan. 11th, 2015. "MutualArt.com". 
    88. Jump up ^ "From Rembrandt to Rosenquist: Works on Paper from the NAC's Permanent Collection.".  Retrieved Jan. 11th, 2015. "MutualArt.com". 
    89. Jump up ^ "Rembrandt: The Consummate Etcher.".  Retrieved Jan. 13th, 2015. "MutualArt.com". 
    90. Jump up ^ "Rembrandt and the Face of Jesus.".  Retrieved Jan. 13th, 2015. "MutualArt.com". 
    91. Jump up ^ White, 200
    92. Jump up ^ Starcky, Emmanuel (1990). Rembrandt. Hazan. p. 45. ISBN 2-85025-212-3. 


  • Ackley, Clifford, et al., Rembrandt's Journey, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2004. ISBN 0-87846-677-0
  • Adams, Laurie Schneider (1999). Art Across Time. Volume II. McGraw-Hill College, New York, NY. 
  • Bull, Duncan, et al., Rembrandt-Caravaggio, Rijksmuseum, 2006.
  • Clark, Kenneth (1969). Civilisation: a personal view. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 9780060108014. 
  • Clark, Kenneth, An Introduction to Rembrandt, 1978, London, John Murray/Readers Union, 1978
  • Clough, Shepard B. (1975). European History in a World Perspective. D.C. Heath and Company, Los Lexington, MA. ISBN 0-669-85555-3. 
  • Driessen, Christoph, Rembrandts vrouwen, Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2012. ISBN 9789035136908
  • Durham, John I. (2004). Biblical Rembrandt: Human Painter In A Landscape Of Faith. Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-86554-886-2. 
  • Gombrich, E.H., The Story of Art, Phaidon, 1995. ISBN 0-7148-3355-X
  • Hughes, Robert (2006), "The God of Realism", The New York Review of Books (Rea S. Hederman) 53 (6) 
  • The Complete Etchings of Rembrandt Reproduced in Original Size, Gary Schwartz (editor). New York: Dover, 1988. ISBN 0-486-28181-7
  • Slive, Seymour, Dutch Painting, 1600–1800, Yale UP, 1995, ISBN 0-300-07451-4
  • van de Wetering, Ernst, Rembrandt: The Painter at Work, Amsterdam University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-520-22668-2
  • Rembrandt by himself (Christopher White — Editor, Quentin Buvelot — Editor) National Gallery Co Ltd [1999]
  • Roberto Manescalchi, Rembrandt: la madre ritrovata, M.C.M.(La storia delle cose), dicembre, 2004.
  • Christopher White, The Late Etchings of Rembrandt, 1969, British Museum/Lund Humphries, London
  • Bomford, D. et al., Art in the making: Rembrandt, New edition, Yale University Press, 2006

Further reading

  • Catalogue raisonné: Stichting Foundation Rembrandt Research Project:
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings — Volume I, which deals with works from Rembrandt’s early years in Leiden (1629–1631), 1982
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings — Volume II: 1631–1634. Bruyn, J., Haak, B. (et al.), Band 2, 1986, ISBN 978-90-247-3339-2
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings — Volume III, 1635–1642. Bruyn, J., Haak, B., Levie, S.H., van Thiel, P.J.J., van de Wetering, E. (Ed. Hrsg.), Band 3, 1990, ISBN 978-90-247-3781-9
    • A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings — Volume IV. Ernst van de Wetering, Karin Groen et al. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands (NL). ISBN 1-4020-3280-3. p. 692. (Self-Portraits)
  • Rembrandt. Images and metaphors, Christian Tumpel (editor), Haus Books London 2006 ISBN 978-1-904950-92-9
  • Van De Wetering, Ernst (2004) (2nd paperback printing). The Painter At Work. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. University of California Press, London, England. By arrangement with Amsterdam University Press. ISBN O-520-22668-2.
  • Anthony M. Amore; Tom Mashberg (2012). Stealing Rembrandts: The Untold Stories of Notorious Art Heists. ISBN 978-0230339903. 

External links

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