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A painting by Pierre August Renoir
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Pierre-Auguste Renoir

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Description: Pierre Auguste Renoir, uncropped image.jpg



25 February 1841Limoges, France


3 December 1919 (aged 78)
Cagnes-sur-Mer, France



Known for


Notable work

Bal du moulin de la Galette, 1876
Luncheon of the Boating Party, 1880
Pink and Blue, 1881
Girls at the Piano, 1892
Nude, 1910



Pierre-Auguste Renoir[1] (French: [pjɛʁ oɡyst ʁənwaʁ]; 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau."[2]

He was the father of actor Pierre Renoir (1885–1952), filmmaker Jean Renoir (1894–1979) and ceramic artist Claude Renoir (1901–1969). He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir (1913–1993), son of Pierre.




The Theater Box, 1874, Courtauld Institute Galleries, London

Pierre-Auguste Renoir was born in Limoges, Haute-Vienne, France, in 1841. His father, Léonard Renoir, was a tailor of modest means, so, in 1844, Renoir's family moved to Paris in search of more favorable prospects. The location of their home, in rue d’Argenteuil in central Paris, placed Renoir in proximity to the Louvre. Although the young Renoir had a natural proclivity for drawing, he exhibited a greater talent for singing. His talent was encouraged by his teacher, Charles Gounod, who was the choirmaster at the Church of St Roch at the time. However, due to the family's financial circumstances, Renoir had to discontinue his music lessons and leave school at the age of thirteen to pursue an apprenticeship at a porcelain factory.[3][4]


Although Renoir displayed a talent for his work, he frequently tired of the subject matter and sought refuge in the galleries of the Louvre. The owner of the factory recognized his apprentice's talent and communicated this to Renoir's family. Following this, Renoir started taking lessons to prepare for entry into Ecole des Beaux Arts. When the porcelain factory adopted mechanical reproduction processes in 1858, Renoir was forced to find other means to support his learning.[4] Before he enrolled in art school, he also painted hangings for overseas missionaries and decorations on fans.[5]

In 1862, he began studying art under Charles Gleyre in Paris. There he met Alfred Sisley, Frédéric Bazille, and Claude Monet.[6] At times, during the 1860s, he did not have enough money to buy paint. Renoir had his first success at the Salon of 1868 with his painting Lise with a Parasol (1867), which depicted Lise Tréhot, his lover at the time.[7] Although Renoir first started exhibiting paintings at the Paris Salon in 1864,[8] recognition was slow in coming, partly as a result of the turmoil of the Franco-Prussian War.

During the Paris Commune in 1871, while Renoir painted on the banks of the Seine River, some Communards thought he was a spy and were about to throw him into the river, when a leader of the Commune, Raoul Rigault, recognized Renoir as the man who had protected him on an earlier occasion.[9] In 1874, a ten-year friendship with Jules Le Cœur and his family ended,[10] and Renoir lost not only the valuable support gained by the association but also a generous welcome to stay on their property near Fontainebleau and its scenic forest. This loss of a favorite painting location resulted in a distinct change of subjects.


Renoir was inspired by the style and subject matter of previous modern painters Camille Pissarro and Édouard Manet.[11] After a series of rejections by the Salon juries, he joined forces with Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, and several other artists to mount the first Impressionist exhibition in April 1874, in which Renoir displayed six paintings. Although the critical response to the exhibition was largely unfavorable, Renoir's work was comparatively well received.[7] That same year, two of his works were shown with Durand-Ruel in London.[10]


The Swing (La Balançoire), 1876, oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Hoping to secure a livelihood by attracting portrait commissions, Renoir displayed mostly portraits at the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876.[12] He contributed a more diverse range of paintings the next year when the group presented its third exhibition; they included Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette and The Swing.[12] Renoir did not exhibit in the fourth or fifth Impressionist exhibitions, and instead resumed submitting his works to the Salon. By the end of the 1870s, particularly after the success of his painting Mme Charpentier and her Children (1878) at the Salon of 1879, Renoir was a successful and fashionable painter.[7]


Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette), 1876, Musée d'Orsay

In 1881, he traveled to Algeria, a country he associated with Eugène Delacroix,[13] then to Madrid, to see the work of Diego Velázquez. Following that, he traveled to Italy to see Titian's masterpieces in Florence and the paintings of Raphael in Rome. On 15 January 1882, Renoir met the composer Richard Wagner at his home in Palermo, Sicily. Renoir painted Wagner's portrait in just thirty-five minutes. In the same year, after contracting pneumonia which permanently damaged his respiratory system, Renoir convalesced for six weeks in Algeria.[14]

In 1883, Renoir spent the summer in Guernsey, one of the islands in the English Channel with a varied landscape of beaches, cliffs, and bays, where he created fifteen paintings in little over a month. Most of these feature Moulin Huet, a bay in Saint Martin's, Guernsey. These paintings were the subject of a set of commemorative postage stamps issued by the Bailiwick of Guernsey in 1983.

While living and working in Montmartre, Renoir employed Suzanne Valadon as a model, who posed for him (The Large Bathers, 1884–1887; Dance at Bougival, 1883)[15] and many of his fellow painters; during that time she studied their techniques and eventually became one of the leading painters of the day.

In 1887, the year when Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee, and upon the request of the queen's associate, Phillip Richbourg, Renoir donated several paintings to the "French Impressionist Paintings" catalog as a token of his loyalty.


Luncheon of the Boating Party, 1880–1881

In 1890, he married Aline Victorine Charigot, a dressmaker twenty years his junior,[16] who, along with a number of the artist's friends, had already served as a model for Le Déjeuner des canotiers (Luncheon of the Boating Party; she is the woman on the left playing with the dog) in 1881, and with whom he had already had a child, Pierre, in 1885.[14] After marrying, Renoir painted many scenes of his wife and daily family life including their children and their nurse, Aline's cousin Gabrielle Renard. The Renoirs had three sons: Pierre Renoir (1885–1952), who became a stage and film actor; Jean Renoir (1894–1979), who became a filmmaker of note; and Claude Renoir (1901–1969), who became a ceramic artist.

Later years


Pierre-Auguste Renoir, c. 1910

Around 1892, Renoir developed rheumatoid arthritis. In 1907, he moved to the warmer climate of "Les Collettes," a farm at the village of Cagnes-sur-Mer, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, close to the Mediterranean coast.[17] Renoir painted during the last twenty years of his life even after his arthritis severely limited his mobility. He developed progressive deformities in his hands and ankylosis of his right shoulder, requiring him to change his painting technique. It has often been reported that in the advanced stages of his arthritis, he painted by having a brush strapped to his paralyzed fingers,[18] but this is erroneous; Renoir remained able to grasp a brush, although he required an assistant to place it in his hand.[19] The wrapping of his hands with bandages, apparent in late photographs of the artist, served to prevent skin irritation.[19]

In 1919, Renoir visited the Louvre to see his paintings hanging with those of the old masters. During this period, he created sculptures by cooperating with a young artist, Richard Guino, who worked the clay. Due to his limited joint mobility, Renoir also used a moving canvas, or picture roll, to facilitate painting large works.[19]

Renoir's portrait of Austrian actress Tilla Durieux (1914) contains playful flecks of vibrant color on her shawl that offset the classical pose of the actress and highlight Renoir's skill just five years before his death.

Renoir died at Cagnes-sur-Mer on 3 December 1919.[20]

Family legacy

Pierre-Auguste Renoir's great-grandson, Alexandre Renoir, has also become a professional artist. In 2018, the Monthaven Arts and Cultural Center in Hendersonville, Tennessee hosted Beauty Remains, an exhibition of his works. The exhibition title comes from a famous quote by Pierre-Auguste who, when asked why he continued to paint with his painful arthritis in his advanced years, once said "The pain passes, but the beauty remains."[21]



Two Sisters (On the Terrace), oil on canvas, 1881, Art Institute of Chicago

Renoir's paintings are notable for their vibrant light and saturated color, most often focusing on people in intimate and candid compositions. The female nude was one of his primary subjects. However, in 1876, a reviewer in Le Figaro wrote "Try to explain to Monsieur Renoir that a woman's torso is not a mass of decomposing flesh with those purplish green stains that denote a state of complete putrefaction in a corpse."[22] Yet in characteristic Impressionist style, Renoir suggested the details of a scene through freely brushed touches of colour, so that his figures softly fuse with one another and their surroundings.

Portrait of Irène Cahen d'Anvers (La Petite Irène), 1880, Foundation E.G. Bührle, Zürich[23]

His initial paintings show the influence of the colorism of Eugène Delacroix and the luminosity of Camille Corot. He also admired the realism of Gustave Courbet and Édouard Manet, and his early work resembles theirs in his use of black as a color. Renoir admired Edgar Degas' sense of movement. Other painters Renoir greatly admired were the 18th-century masters François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard.[24]

A fine example of Renoir's early work and evidence of the influence of Courbet's realism, is Diana, 1867. Ostensibly a mythological subject, the painting is a naturalistic studio work; the figure carefully observed, solidly modeled and superimposed upon a contrived landscape. If the work is a "student" piece, Renoir's heightened personal response to female sensuality is present. The model was Lise Tréhot, the artist's mistress at that time, and inspiration for a number of paintings.[25]

In the late 1860s, through the practice of painting light and water en plein air (outdoors), he and his friend Claude Monet discovered that the color of shadows is not brown or black, but the reflected color of the objects surrounding them, an effect known today as diffuse reflection. Several pairs of paintings exist in which Renoir and Monet worked side-by-side, depicting the same scenes (La Grenouillère, 1869).

One of the best known Impressionist works is Renoir's 1876 Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette). The painting depicts an open-air scene, crowded with people at a popular dance garden on the Butte Montmartre close to where he lived. The works of his early maturity were typically Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling color and light.


One of a series, Blonde Bather (1881), marked a distinct change in style following a trip to Italy

By the mid-1880s, however, he had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women. It was a trip to Italy in 1881 when he saw works by Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Titian, and other Renaissance masters, that convinced him that he was on the wrong path. At that point he declared, "I had gone as far as I could with Impressionism and I realized I could neither paint nor draw".[26]

For the next several years he painted in a more severe style in an attempt to return to classicism.[27] Concentrating on his drawing and emphasizing the outlines of figures, he painted works such as Blonde Bather (1881 and 1882) and The Large Bathers (1884–87; Philadelphia Museum of Art) during what is sometimes referred to as his "Ingres period".[28]


Girls at the Piano, 1892, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

After 1890 he changed direction again. To dissolve outlines, as in his earlier work, he returned to thinly brushed color.

From this period onward he concentrated on monumental nudes and domestic scenes, fine examples of which are Girls at the Piano, 1892, and Grandes Baigneuses, 1887. The latter painting is the most typical and successful of Renoir's late, abundantly fleshed nudes.[29]

A prolific artist, he created several thousand paintings. The warm sensuality of Renoir's style made his paintings some of the most well-known and frequently reproduced works in the history of art. The single largest collection of his works—181 paintings in all—is at the Barnes Foundation, in Philadelphia.

Catalogue raisonné

A five-volume catalogue raisonné of Renoir's works (with one supplement) was published by Bernheim-Jeune between 1983 and 2014.[30] Bernheim-Jeune is the only surviving major art dealer that was used by Renoir. The Wildenstein Institute is preparing, but has not yet published, a critical catalogue of Renoir's work.[31] A disagreement between these two organizations concerning an unsigned work in Picton Castle was at the centre of the second episode of the fourth season of the television series Fake or Fortune.

Posthumous prints

In 1919, Ambroise Vollard, a renowned art dealer, published a book on the life and work of Renoir, La Vie et l'Œuvre de Pierre-Auguste Renoir, in an edition of 1000 copies. In 1986, Vollard's heirs started reprinting the copper plates, generally, etchings with hand applied watercolor. These prints are signed by Renoir in the plate and are embossed "Vollard" in the lower margin. They are not numbered, dated or signed in pencil.

Posthumous sales

A small version of Bal du moulin de la Galette sold for $78.1 million 17 May 1990 at Sotheby's New York.[32]

In 2012, Renoir's Paysage Bords de Seine was offered for sale at auction but the painting was discovered to have been stolen from the Baltimore Museum of Art in 1951. The sale was cancelled.

Gallery of paintings

Portraits and landscapes

Description: Lise Sewing, 1866, Dallas Museum of Art

Lise Sewing, 1866, Dallas Museum of Art

Description: La Grenouillère, 1868, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

La Grenouillère, 1868, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

Description: Portrait of Alfred Sisley, 1868

Portrait of Alfred Sisley, 1868

Description: Pont-Neuf, 1872

Pont-Neuf, 1872

Description: Claude Monet Painting in His Garden at Argenteuil, 1873, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut

Claude Monet Painting in His Garden at Argenteuil, 1873, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut

Description: La Parisienne, 1874, (Henriette Henriot), National Museum Cardiff

La Parisienne, 1874, (Henriette Henriot), National Museum Cardiff

Description: The Dancer, 1874, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

The Dancer, 1874, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Description: Portrait of Claude Monet, 1875, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

Portrait of Claude Monet, 1875, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

Description: The Grands Boulevards, 1875, Philadelphia Museum of Art

The Grands Boulevards, 1875, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Description: A Girl with a Watering Can, 1876, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

A Girl with a Watering Can, 1876, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Description: Mother and Children, 1876, Frick Collection, New York City

Mother and Children, 1876, Frick Collection, New York City

Description: Portrait of Jeanne Samary, 1877, Pushkin Museum, Moscow

Portrait of Jeanne Samary, 1877, Pushkin Museum, Moscow

Description: Mme. Charpentier and her children, 1878, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Mme. Charpentier and her children, 1878, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Description: Portrait of Alphonsine Fournaise, 1879, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

Portrait of Alphonsine Fournaise, 1879, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

Description: Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Boating on the Seine (La Yole), c. 1879

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Boating on the Seine (La Yole), c. 1879

Description: By the Water, 1880, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

By the Water, 1880, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

Description: Sleeping Girl with a Cat, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts

Sleeping Girl with a Cat, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts

Description: Pink and Blue showing Alice and Elisabeth Cahen d'Anvers, 1881, São Paulo Museum of Art, São Paulo

Pink and Blue showing Alice and Elisabeth Cahen d'Anvers, 1881, São Paulo Museum of Art, São Paulo

Description: The Piazza San Marco, Venice, 1881 (Minneapolis Institute of Art)

The Piazza San Marco, Venice, 1881 (Minneapolis Institute of Art)

Description: Fillette au chapeau bleu, 1881, (Jane Henriot), private collection

Fillette au chapeau bleu, 1881, (Jane Henriot), private collection

Description: Portrait of Charles and Georges Durand-Ruel, 1882

Portrait of Charles and Georges Durand-Ruel, 1882

Description: Dance at Bougival, 1882–1883, (woman at left is painter Suzanne Valadon), Boston Museum of Fine Arts

Dance at Bougival, 1882–1883, (woman at left is painter Suzanne Valadon), Boston Museum of Fine Arts

Description: Dance in the Country (Aline Charigot and Paul Lhote), 1883, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Dance in the Country (Aline Charigot and Paul Lhote), 1883, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Description: Dance in the City, 1883, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

Dance in the City, 1883, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France

Description: Girl With a Hoop, 1885, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Girl With a Hoop, 1885, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Description: Girl Braiding Her Hair (Suzanne Valadon), 1885

Girl Braiding Her Hair (Suzanne Valadon), 1885

Description: Still Life: Flowers, 1885, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

Still Life: Flowers, 1885, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

Description: Tamaris, France, c. 1885 (Minneapolis Institute of Art)

Tamaris, France, c. 1885 (Minneapolis Institute of Art)

Description: La Roche Guyon, 1885–86, Aberdeen Art Gallery

La Roche Guyon, 1885–86, Aberdeen Art Gallery

Description: Julie Manet with cat, 1887

Julie Manet with cat, 1887

Description: Young Woman with a Blue Choker, 1888

Young Woman with a Blue Choker, 1888

Description: Young Girl with Red Hair, 1894

Young Girl with Red Hair, 1894

Description: Portrait of Berthe Morisot and daughter Julie Manet, 1894

Portrait of Berthe Morisot and daughter Julie Manet, 1894

Description: Head of a Young Woman, late 19th century (Minneapolis Institute of Art)

Head of a Young Woman, late 19th century (Minneapolis Institute of Art)

Description: Gabrielle Renard and infant son Jean Renoir, 1895

Gabrielle Renard and infant son Jean Renoir, 1895

Description: Portrait of Ambroise Vollard, 1908

Portrait of Ambroise Vollard, 1908

Description: Portrait of Paul Durand-Ruel, 1910

Portrait of Paul Durand-Ruel, 1910

Description: Portrait of Ambroise Vollard, 1917

Portrait of Ambroise Vollard, 1917

Description: Woman with a Mandolin, 1919

Woman with a Mandolin, 1919


Description: Self-portrait, 1875

Self-portrait, 1875

Description: Self-portrait, 1876

Self-portrait, 1876

Description: Self-portrait, 1910

Self-portrait, 1910

Description: Self-portrait, 1910

Self-portrait, 1910


Description: Diana, 1867, The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

Diana, 1867, The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

Description: Nude in the Sun, 1875, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Nude in the Sun, 1875, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Description: Seated Girl, 1883

Seated Girl, 1883

Description: The Large Bathers, 1887, Philadelphia Museum of Art

The Large Bathers, 1887, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Description: After The Bath, 1888

After The Bath, 1888

Description: Three Bathers, 1895, Cleveland Museum of Art Cleveland, Ohio

Three Bathers, 1895, Cleveland Museum of Art Cleveland, Ohio

Description: Nude, National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade

Nude, National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade

Description: After The Bath, 1910, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia

After The Bath, 1910, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia

Description: Woman at the Well, 1910

Woman at the Well, 1910

Description: Seated Bather Drying Her Leg, 1914, Musée de l'Orangerie, Paris

Seated Bather Drying Her Leg, 1914, Musée de l'Orangerie, Paris

Description: Women Bathers, 1916, National Museum, Stockholm

Women Bathers, 1916, National Museum, Stockholm

Description: Bathers, 1918, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia

Bathers, 1918, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia

Interactive image

Description: Renoir - Boating Party

Description: The image above contains clickable linksClickable image of the Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881) by Pierre-Auguste Renoir (The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.). Place your mouse cursor over a person in the painting to see their name; click to link to an article about them.


Pontus Furstenberg
 by Ernst Josepbson
inspired Joel Toft to do this painting
,  (699)
Oil on canvas
25 x 33 cm

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Ernst Josephson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


16 April 1851  Stockholm, Sweden


22 November 1906 (aged 55)Stockholm, Sweden


Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, Stockholm


David and Saul (1878) Nationalmuseum


Strömkarlen (1882-1884) Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde

Ernst Abraham Josephson (1851-1906) was a Swedish painter and poet. He specialized in portraits, genre scenes of folklife and folklore.[1][2]


He was born to a middle-class family of merchants of Jewish ancestry. His uncle, Ludvig Josephson (1832-1899) was a dramatist and his uncle Jacob Axel Josephson (1818-1880) was a composer. When he was ten, his father Ferdinand Semy Ferdinand Josephson (1814-1861) left home and he was raised by his mother, Gustafva Jacobsson (1819-1881) and three older sisters.[1][3][4]



At the age of sixteen, he decided to become an artist and, with his family's support, enrolled at the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts. His primary instructors there were Johan Christoffer Boklund and August Malmström. He was there until 1876, when he received a Royal Medal for painting.[1]

After leaving the academy, he and his friend and fellow artist Severin Nilsson (1846-1918) visited Italy, Germany and the Netherlands, where they copied the Old Masters. His breakthrough came in Paris, where he was able to study with Jean-Léon Gérôme at the École des Beaux-Arts. He soon began concentrating on portraits, including many of his friends and fellow Swedes in France. For a time, he shared a studio with Hugo Birger (1854–1887). His personal style developed further during a trip to Seville with his friend, Anders Zorn, from 1881 to 1882.[5][6][7]

His private life did not go well, however. By his late twenties, he was affected by syphilis. His romantic life suffered as a consequence, as he was forced to break off a promising relationship with a young model named Ketty Rindskopf.[1]

In the 1880s, a painting that is now considered one of his masterpieces, Strömkarlen (1882-1884) was rejected by the Nationalmuseum. It was eventually purchased by Prince Eugen (1865-1947), himself a skilled amateur artist and art patron, who hung it at his home, Waldemarsudde, now a museum on Djurgården in Stockholm. In total Ernst Josephson is also represented at the museum with ten other oil paintings and a large number of drawings.[8][9][10][11]

In 1881, his mother died. They had been very close and it affected him deeply. There was one bright spot; in 1883 he obtained the patronage of Pontus Furstenberg (1827-1902), a wealthy merchant and art collector. In 1885, he became a supporter of the "Opponenterna", a group that was protesting the outmoded teaching methods at the Swedish Academy. But his interest in the group diminished when he failed to win election to their governing board.[1][12]

By the summer of 1888, he was beginning to have delusions and hallucinations, brought on by the progression of his illness. He installed himself on the Île-de-Bréhat in Brittany, where he had spent the previous summer with painter and engraver Allan Österlind (1855-1938) and his family. There, he became involved in spiritism, possibly inspired by Österlind's interest in occult phenomena. While in his visionary states, he wrote poems and created paintings that he signed with the names of dead artists. Some of his best known and most influential works were created during this period.[13][14]

Shortly after, Österlind took him back to Sweden and he was admitted to Ulleråkers sjukhus [sv], a mental institution in Uppsala. He remained there for several months. The diagnosis was paranoia, but his condition would now most likely be called schizophrenia. After being released, he continued to associate with his old friends, who did what they could to help him. His paintings had become rather distorted, but his earlier works were shown at exhibitions in Paris and Berlin, thanks to arrangements made by Richard Bergh and Georg Pauli, and he received several medals for them. As the years progressed, his physical health declined. First he developed rheumatic problems, which prevented him from painting. Then he was diagnosed with diabetes, which was the cause of his death in 1906.[citation needed]


A street, "Ernst Josephsons väg" in Södra Ängby is named after him. His works may be seen at the Nationalmuseum,[15] Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde[16] and the Göteborgs konstmuseum.[17]


Spanish Blacksmiths (1881)

Portrait of Jeanette Rubenson (1883)

Postmaster of Bréhat (1888)

Gåslisa (1888–1890)[18]

Smile (1890)

Ecstatic Heads
(after 1890)



Gertrud Serner. "Ernst A Josephson". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

 "Ernst Abraham Josephson". allkunne. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

Gösta M Bergman. "Ludvig O Josephson". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

 Folke Bohlin Anna Johnson. "Jacob Axel Josephson". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

    Svensk uppslagsbok, Vol. 14, pg.641 (1933)

 Pär Rittsel. "J Severin Nilson". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

 "Hugo Birger". Lexikonett amanda. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

 Guido Valentin, Det hände 1893 - Stora och små händelser samlade ur årets tidningar och tidskrifter, AB Bokverk, Stockholm (1943) pg.21

 "Josephson, Ernst Abraham". Treccani Italian Encyclopedia (1933). Retrieved March 1, 2019.

 "Prince Eugen's Waldemarsudde-Om museet". Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

 "Ernst Josephson". Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

 Kjell Hjern. "Pontus Fürstenberg". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

  "Erik August Allan Österlind". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

 Benjamin Ivry (August 4, 2010). "A Swede Among The Sprites". The Forward Association, Inc. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

  "Nationalmuseum - Ernst Josephson".

 "Ernst Josephson". Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde.

 "Göteborgs konstmuseum | Female Nude Study".

  Gåslisa @ Project Runeberg


Pontus Fürstenberg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




Portrait of Fürstenberg by Ernst Josephson

Pontus Fürstenberg (4 October 1827 – 10 April 1902) was a Swedish art collector and merchant from a Jewish family. He was married to Göthilda Magnus. ...

Pontus supported artists in many ways, not only with food, room, clothes and art materials, but he also helped them to study abroad in places like Paris. He also would pay artist's debts for them. For this support Pontus received paintings and other pieces or arts. Without Pontus's direct and indirect patronage, artists like Carl Larsson, Ernst Josephson and Anders Zorn would not have been able to focus exclusively on their art.





Etching of Anders Zorn featuring Pontus and Göthilda Fürstenberg



Pontus and Göthilda Fürstenbergs' graves in Gothenburg.

Pontus Fürstenberg (4 October 1827 – 10 April 1902) was a Swedish art collector and merchant from a Jewish family. He was married to Göthilda Magnus.


Pontus Fürstenberg was born at Östra Hamngatan 26, in Gothenburg, Sweden. His family had arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 19th century. Pontus was the oldest child, and his parents were wholesalers Levy Fürstenberg and Rosa Warburg. Levy also owned the textile company Levy Fürstenberg & Co, which provided the family a good economic base.

Pontus did poorly in school. His grades were mediocre, but he did well enough to be able to attend the Handelsintitutet (Institute of Trade). At the age of 26, he became part-owner in his father's textile company. A short way from the company lived the wealthy Magnus family. Both families spent a lot of time together, and it was here that Pontus met their only daughter, Göthilda Magnus, who would later become his wife.

During this time, Pontus started to engage himself in local politics, and at the age of 42 was appointed leader of the city counsel (stadsfullmäktige) in 1869. He was also involved with many community activities, including serving as Vice President of the Gothenburg Ancient Monument Society.

The art collection

Around 1860, Pontus started to become interested in art, and he started his career as an art collector and art merchant. This interest would have a major impact on many artists, both in Sweden and abroad, and served as the start of what would become the largest and most prominent art collection in Sweden by the end of the 19th century.

The intensive development started when Fürstenberg married Göthilda Magnus in the Gothenburg Synagogue on May 31, 1880. Pontus had long been in love with her, but they were forbidden to be together by Göthilda's father, the rich banker and financier Edvard Magnus. He considered that his rich daughter shouldn't spend time with a "hunchbacked man ten years older than she," which Pontus was. Magnus also thought that the Fürstenberg wealth was too small. But Pontus and Göthilda met in secret anyway, and when Edvard died in 1879, they were free to marry.

The marriage was a big change in Pontus' life; because he had married one of the richest heiresses in Gothenburg, he became a very rich man. He was able to leave his work as a wholesaler to spend the rest of his life in his greatest interest, the arts. Pontus and Göthilda decorated a beautiful home in Brunnsparken, in the center of Gothenburg, which would later be called the "Fürstenberg Palace". He started an art collection activity in his own house, with several million Swedish crowns as start capital. Thanks to Göthilda's enormous wealth, he could develop this activity with several promised artists.

In the beginning, Pontus didn't know much about art, only that he found art to be beautiful. He got help from an architect friend before buying the first four paintings in his collection. But as time went by his knowledge of art began to emerge. During the Scandinavian art exhibition in Gothenburg, 1881, Pontus made several connections and had his eye on several young Swedish art geniuses.

The art merchant


Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pontus Fürstenberg

Pontus supported artists in many ways, not only with food, room, clothes and art materials, but he also helped them to study abroad in places like Paris. He also would pay artist's debts for them. For this support Pontus received paintings and other pieces or arts. Without Pontus's direct and indirect patronage, artists like Carl Larsson, Ernst Josephson and Anders Zorn would not have been able to focus exclusively on their art.


Diana and her nymphs
 by Peter Paul Rubens
Inspired Joel Toft to do this painting
Oil on canvas
35 x 48 cm

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Peter Paul Rubens

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2016-05-12


Description: Sir Peter Paul Rubens - Portrait of the Artist - Google Art Project.jpg

Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection


Peter Paul Rubens
(1577-06-28)28 June 1577
Siegen, Nassau-Dillenburg (now North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany)


30 May 1640(1640-05-30) (aged 62)
Antwerp, Spanish Netherlands (now Belgium)




Tobias Verhaecht
Adam van Noort
Otto van Veen

Known for

Painting, Printmaking


Flemish Baroque

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (/ˈruːbənz/;[1] Dutch: [ˈrybə(n)s]; 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.

In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England. 



Rubens and Isabella Brandt, the Honeysuckle Bower, c. 1609. Alte Pinakothek


The garden Rubens planned at Rubenshuis, in Antwerpen

Early life

Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and Maria Pypelincks. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba.

Jan Rubens became the legal adviser (and lover) of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange, and settled at her court in Siegen in 1570, fathering her daughter Christine who was born in 1571.[2]

Following Jan Rubens' imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. The family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his father's death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, where he was raised as a Catholic.

Religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting[3] (he had said "My passion comes from the heavens, not from earthly musings").



Portrait of a Young Scholar, from 1597

In Antwerp, Rubens received a humanist education, studying Latin and classical literature. By fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the city's leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort and Otto van Veen.[4] Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier artists' works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger and Marcantonio Raimondi's engravings after Raphael. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at which time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master.[5]

Italy (1600–1608


The Fall of Phaeton, 1604, in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy. He stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an immediate effect on Rubens's painting, and his later, mature style was profoundly influenced by Titian.[6] With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601. There, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian masters. The Hellenistic sculpture Laocoön and his Sons was especially influential on him, as was the art of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci.[7] He was also influenced by the recent, highly naturalistic paintings by Caravaggio.

Rubens later made a copy of Caravaggio's Entombment of Christ and recommended his patron, the Duke of Mantua, to purchase The Death of the Virgin (Louvre).[8] After his return to Antwerp he was instrumental in the acquisition of The Madonna of the Rosary (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) for the St. Paul's Church in Antwerp.[9] During this first stay in Rome, Rubens completed his first altarpiece commission, St. Helena with the True Cross for the Roman church of Santa Croce in Jerusalem.

Rubens travelled to Spain on a diplomatic mission in 1603, delivering gifts from the Gonzagas to the court of Philip III.[10] While there, he studied the extensive collections of Raphael and Titian that had been collected by Philip II.[11] He also painted an equestrian portrait of the Duke of Lerma during his stay (Prado, Madrid) that demonstrates the influence of works like Titian's Charles V at Mühlberg (1548; Prado, Madrid). This journey marked the first of many during his career that combined art and diplomacy.


Madonna on Floral Wreath, together with Jan Brueghel the Elder, 1619

He returned to Italy in 1604, where he remained for the next four years, first in Mantua and then in Genoa and Rome. In Genoa, Rubens painted numerous portraits, such as the Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), and the portrait of Maria di Antonio Serra Pallavicini, in a style that influenced later paintings by Anthony van Dyck, Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough.[12]

He also began a book illustrating the palaces in the city, which was published in 1622 as Palazzi di Genova. From 1606 to 1608, he was mostly in Rome. During this period Rubens received, with the assistance of Cardinal Jacopo Serra (the brother of Maria Pallavicini), his most important commission to date for the High Altar of the city's most fashionable new church, Santa Maria in Vallicella also known as the Chiesa Nuova.

The subject was to be St. Gregory the Great and important local saints adoring an icon of the Virgin and Child. The first version, a single canvas (now at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble), was immediately replaced by a second version on three slate panels that permits the actual miraculous holy image of the "Santa Maria in Vallicella" to be revealed on important feast days by a removable copper cover, also painted by the artist.[13]

Rubens' experiences in Italy continued to influence his work. He continued to write many of his letters and correspondences in Italian, signed his name as "Pietro Paolo Rubens", and spoke longingly of returning to the peninsula—a hope that never materialized.[14]

Antwerp (1609–1621


Descent from the Cross, 1618. Hermitage Museum

Upon hearing of his mother's illness in 1608, Rubens planned his departure from Italy for Antwerp. However, she died before he arrived home. His return coincided with a period of renewed prosperity in the city with the signing of the Treaty of Antwerp in April 1609, which initiated the Twelve Years' Truce. In September 1609 Rubens was appointed as court painter by Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, and Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, sovereigns of the Low Countries.

He received special permission to base his studio in Antwerp instead of at their court in Brussels, and to also work for other clients. He remained close to the Archduchess Isabella until her death in 1633, and was called upon not only as a painter but also as an ambassador and diplomat. Rubens further cemented his ties to the city when, on 3 October 1609, he married Isabella Brandt, the daughter of a leading Antwerp citizen and humanist, Jan Brandt.

In 1610 Rubens moved into a new house and studio that he designed. Now the Rubenshuis Museum, the Italian-influenced villa in the centre of Antwerp accommodated his workshop, where he and his apprentices made most of the paintings, and his personal art collection and library, both among the most extensive in Antwerp. During this time he built up a studio with numerous students and assistants. His most famous pupil was the young Anthony van Dyck, who soon became the leading Flemish portraitist and collaborated frequently with Rubens. He also often collaborated with the many specialists active in the city, including the animal painter Frans Snyders, who contributed the eagle to Prometheus Bound, and his good friend the flower-painter Jan Brueghel the Elder.

Family of Jan Brueghel the Elder, 1613–1615. Courtauld Institute of Art

Another house was built by Rubens to the north of Antwerp in the polder village of Doel, "Hooghuis" (1613/1643), perhaps as an investment. The "High House" was built next to the village church.

Altarpieces such as The Raising of the Cross (1610) and The Descent from the Cross (1611–1614) for the Cathedral of Our Lady were particularly important in establishing Rubens as Flanders' leading painter shortly after his return. The Raising of the Cross, for example, demonstrates the artist's synthesis of Tintoretto's Crucifixion for the Scuola Grande di San Rocco in Venice, Michelangelo's dynamic figures, and Rubens' own personal style. This painting has been held as a prime example of Baroque religious art.[15]

Rubens used the production of prints and book title-pages, especially for his friend Balthasar Moretus, the owner of the large Plantin-Moretus publishing house, to extend his fame throughout Europe during this part of his career. With the exception of a couple of brilliant etchings, he only produced drawings for these himself, leaving the printmaking to specialists, such as Lucas Vorsterman, Paulus Pontius and Willem Panneels.[16] He recruited a number of engravers trained by Christoffel Jegher, who he carefully schooled in the more vigorous style he wanted.

He also designed the last significant woodcuts before the 19th century revival in the technique. Rubens established copyright for his prints, most significantly in Holland, where his work was widely copied through prints. In addition he established copyrights for his work in England, France and Spain.[17]


Portrait of Anna of Austria, Queen of France, c.1622–1625

The Marie de' Medici Cycle and diplomatic missions (1621–1630)

Main article: Marie de' Medici cycle

In 1621, the Queen Mother of France, Marie de' Medici, commissioned Rubens to paint two large allegorical cycles celebrating her life and the life of her late husband, Henry IV, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. The Marie de' Medici cycle (now in the Louvre) was installed in 1625, and although he began work on the second series it was never completed.[18] Marie was exiled from France in 1630 by her son, Louis XIII, and died in 1642 in the same house in Cologne where Rubens had lived as a child.[19]

After the end of the Twelve Years' Truce in 1621, the Spanish Habsburg rulers entrusted Rubens with a number of diplomatic missions.[20] While in Paris in 1622 to discuss the Marie de' Medici cycle, Rubens engaged in clandestine information gathering activities, which at the time was an important task of diplomats. He relied on his friendship with Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc to get information on political developments in France.[21] Between 1627 and 1630, Rubens' diplomatic career was particularly active, and he moved between the courts of Spain and England in an attempt to bring peace between the Spanish Netherlands and the United Provinces. He also made several trips to the northern Netherlands as both an artist and a diplomat.

At the courts he sometimes encountered the attitude that courtiers should not use their hands in any art or trade, but he was also received as a gentleman by many. Rubens was raised by Philip IV of Spain to the nobility in 1624 and knighted by Charles I of England in 1630. Philip IV confirmed Rubens' status as a knight a few months later.[22] Rubens was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree from Cambridge University in 1629.[23]


The Fall of Man 1628–29. Prado, Madrid


Lucas Emil Vorsterman after Sir Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1595 - 1675 ), The Fall of the Rebel Angels, 1621, engraving, Andrew W. Mellon Fund.

Rubens was in Madrid for eight months in 1628–1629. In addition to diplomatic negotiations, he executed several important works for Philip IV and private patrons. He also began a renewed study of Titian's paintings, copying numerous works including the Madrid Fall of Man (1628–29).
[24] During this stay, he befriended the court painter Diego Velázquez and the two planned to travel to Italy together the following year. Rubens, however, returned to Antwerp and Velázquez made the journey without him.[25]

His stay in Antwerp was brief, and he soon travelled on to London where he remained until April 1630. An important work from this period is the Allegory of Peace and War (1629; National Gallery, London).[26] It illustrates the artist's lively concern for peace, and was given to Charles I as a gift.

While Rubens' international reputation with collectors and nobility abroad continued to grow during this decade, he and his workshop also continued to paint monumental paintings for local patrons in Antwerp. The Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1625–6) for the Cathedral of Antwerp is one prominent example.

Last decade (1630–1640)


Portrait of Hélène Fourment (Het Pelsken), c. 1638 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Rubens's last decade was spent in and around Antwerp. Major works for foreign patrons still occupied him, such as the ceiling paintings for the Banqueting House at Inigo Jones's Palace of Whitehall, but he also explored more personal artistic directions.

In 1630, four years after the death of his first wife Isabella, the 53-year-old painter married his first wife's niece, the 16-year-old Hélène Fourment. Hélène inspired the voluptuous figures in many of his paintings from the 1630s, including The Feast of Venus (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna), The Three Graces and The Judgment of Paris (both Prado, Madrid). In the latter painting, which was made for the Spanish court, the artist's young wife was recognized by viewers in the figure of Venus. In an intimate portrait of her, Hélène Fourment in a Fur Wrap, also known as Het Pelsken, Rubens' wife is even partially modelled after classical sculptures of the Venus Pudica, such as the Medici Venus.

In 1635, Rubens bought an estate outside Antwerp, the Steen, where he spent much of his time. Landscapes, such as his Château de Steen with Hunter (National Gallery, London) and Farmers Returning from the Fields (Pitti Gallery, Florence), reflect the more personal nature of many of his later works. He also drew upon the Netherlandish traditions of Pieter Bruegel the Elder for inspiration in later works like Flemish Kermis (c. 1630; Louvre, Paris).

Rubens died from heart failure, which was a result of his chronic gout on 30 May 1640. He was interred in Saint Jacob's church, Antwerp. The artist had eight children, three with Isabella and five with Hélène; his youngest child was born eight months after his death.



The Three Graces, 1635, Prado

Rubens was a prolific artist. The catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop.[27]

His commissioned works were mostly religious subjects, and "history" paintings, which included mythological subjects, and hunt scenes. He painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house. He also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the Joyous Entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635.

His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed. He also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. He was one of the last major artists to make consistent use of wooden panels as a support medium, even for very large works, but he used canvas as well, especially when the work needed to be sent a long distance. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems.


Painting from Peter Paul Rubens workshop, 1620s

His nudes of various biblical and mythological women are especially well-known. Painted in the Baroque tradition of depicting women as soft-bodied, passive, and highly sexualized beings, his nudes emphasize the concepts of fertility, desire, physical beauty, temptation, and virtue. Skillfully rendered, these paintings of nude women were undoubtedly created to appeal to his largely male audience of patrons.[28] Additionally, Rubens was quite fond of painting full-figured women, giving rise to the more body positive terms 'Rubensian' or 'Rubenesque' (sometimes 'Rubensesque') for plus-sized women. And while the male gaze features heavily in Rubens's paintings of females generally, he brings multi-layered allegory and symbolism to his portraits.[29] His large-scale cycle representing Marie de Medicis focuses on several classic female archetypes like the virgin, consort, wife, widow, and diplomatic regent.[30] The inclusion of this iconography in his female portraits, along with his art depicting noblewomen of the day, serve to elevate his female portrait sitters to the status and importance of his male portrait sitters.[31]

Rubens's depiction of males is equally stylized, replete with meaning, and quite the opposite of his female subjects. His male nudes represent highly athletic and large mythical or biblical men. Unlike his female nudes, most of his male nudes are depicted partially nude, with sashes, armor, or shadows shielding them from being completely unclothed. These men are twisting, reaching, bending, and grasping: all of which portrays his male subjects engaged in a great deal of physical, sometimes aggressive, action. The concepts Rubens artistically represents illustrate the male as powerful, capable, forceful and compelling. The allegorical and symbolic subjects he painted reference the classic masculine tropes of male dominance, social superiority, war, and civil authority.[32] Male archetypes readily found in Rubens's paintings include the hero, husband, father, civic leader, king, and the battle weary.

Rubens was a great admirer of Leonardo da Vinci's work. Using an engraving done 50 years after Leonardo started his project on the Battle of Anghiari, Rubens did a masterly drawing of the Battle which is now in the Louvre in Paris. "The idea that an ancient copy of a lost artwork can be as important as the original is familiar to scholars," says Salvatore Settis, archaeologist and art historian.

Peter Paul Rubens works at the Royal Museums of Fine Arts, Antwerp, Belgium

  • Peter Paul Rubens works at the Louvre
  • Description:

Peter Paul Rubens works at the Victor Balaguer Museum


Paintings from Rubens' workshop can be divided into three categories: those he painted by himself, those he painted in part (mainly hands and faces), and those he only supervised as other painters produced them from his drawings or oil sketches. He had, as was usual at the time, a large workshop with many apprentices and students, some of whom, such as Anthony van Dyck, became famous in their own right. He also often sub-contracted elements such as animals or still-life in large compositions to specialists such as Frans Snyders, or other artists such as Jacob Jordaens.

Selected works

Venus at the Mirror, 1615

Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566–1633), 1615. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Virgin in Adoration before the Christ Child, c. 1615

Diana Returning from Hunt, 1615 Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister

Tiger Hunt, 1617-1618

Hippopotamus Hunt (1616). Rubens is known for the frenetic energy and lusty ebullience of his paintings.

The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, c. 1617


  • Historical portraits
  • Description:

Portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria, 1606

Portrait of King Philip IV of Spain, c. 1628/1629

Portrait of Elisabeth of France. 1628, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Vienna

Portrait of Ambrogio Spinola, c. 1627 National Gallery in Prague

  • Landscapes
  • Description:

]], London)

Miracle of Saint Hubert, painted together with Jan Bruegel, 1617

Landscape with the Ruins of Mount Palatine in Rome, 1615

Landscape with Milkmaids and Cattle, 1618

  • Mythological
  • Description:

Nymphs filling the horn of plenty, 1615, together with Jan Brueghel the Elder

The Birth of the Milky Way, 1636-1637, Madrid, Museo del Prado

Venus and Adonis

Jupiter and Callisto, 1613, Museumslandschaft of Hesse in Kassel

  • Marie de' Medici cycle (1622-1625)
  • Description:

Series on Maria de' Medici; The Flight from Blois

Maria de' Medici's arrival in Marseille

The Education of the Princess, from the Marie de' Medici cycle

The Negotiations at Angoulême

  • Religious paintings
  • Description:

The Virgin of the Immaculate Conception, 1626-1628. Madrid, Museo del Prado.

The Holy Family 1630, Prado

The feast of Herodes

King Solomon, 1617


  • Nude
  • Description:

Fortuna, 1638

Susanna and the Elders, 1608

The Triumph of the Virtue 1608

Hygeia, 1615. Prague, Lobkowicz Palace.

Ermit and sleeping Angelica, 1628

Cimone and Efigenia, 1615

Venus, Cupid, Baccchus and Ceres, 1612

Amor and Venus 1614

  • Helena Fourment and related pictures
  • Description:

Rubens with Hélène Fourment and their son Peter Paul, 1639, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Helena Fourment in wedding dress, detalj, the artist's second 1630, now in the Alte Pinakothek

Helena Fourment with a Carriage, 1639 Louvre.

Helene Fourment with Rubens and their child, c. 1630

Venus and Cupid, 1640

Bathsheba at the Fountain, 1635

Venus, Mars and Cupid

Pastoral Scene, 1636

  • Drawings
  • Description:

Lion, c.1614-1615. Black and yellow chalk, grey wash, heightened with white

Peter Paul Rubens' son, Nikolas, 1621

Isabella Brandt, (first wife of Peter Paul Rubens), 1621

Peter Paul Rubens (Possible self-portrait), c.1620s


The Judgement of Paris, c.1606

Jan Brueghel the Elder and Peter Paul Rubens, The garden of Eden with the fall of man, Mauritshuis, The Hague

Lost works

The painting The Crucifixion, painted for the Church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome, was imported to England in 1811. It was auctioned in 1812 and again in 1820 and 1821 but was lost at sea sometime after 1821.[33] Works missing by Rubens are the Equestrian Portrait of the Archduke Albert, Susannah and the Elders now known only from engraving from 1620 by Lucas Vostermanand; Satyr, Nymph, Putti and Leopards now known only from engraving and Judith Beheading Holofernes c. 1609 known only though the 1610 engraving by Cornelis Galle the Elder. Works destroyed in the bombardment of Brussels are the Madonna of the Rosary painted for the Royal Chapel of the Dominican Church, Brussels, Virgin Adorned with Flowers by Saint Anne, 1610 painted for the Church of the Carmelite Friars, Saint Job Triptych, 1613, painted for Saint Nicholas Church, Brussels, Cambyses Appointing Otanes Judge Judgment of Solomon the Last Judgment that were decorations for the Magistrates' Hall, Brussels.

In the Coudenberg Palace fire there were several works by Rubens destroyed, like Nativity (1731), Adoration of the Magi and Pentecost.[34] The paintings Neptune and Amphitrite, Vision of Saint Hubert and Diana and Nymphs Surprised by Satyrs was destroyed in the Friedrichshain flak tower fire in 1945.[35]

The painting The Abduction of Proserpine was destroyed in the fire at Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, 5 February 1861.[36]

The painting Crucifixion with Mary, St. John, Magdalen, 1643 was destroyed in the English Civil War: English Parliamentarians in the Queen's Chapel, Somerset House, London, 1643[37] The painting Equestrian Portrait of Philip IV of Spain was destroyed in the fire at Royal Alcázar of Madrid fire in 1734. A copy is in the Uffizi Gallery. The Continence of Scipio was destroyed in a Fire in the Western Exchange, Old Bond Street, London, March 1836[38] The painting The Lion Hunt was removed by Napoleon's agents from Schloss Schleissheim, near Munich, 1800 and was destroyed later in a fire at the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux[39]

The painting Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of Buckingham, later owned by the Earl of Jersey at Osterley Park, was destroyed in a fire in 1949[40] and Portrait of Philip IV of Spain from 1628 was destroyed in the Incendiary attack at the Kunsthaus, Zurich, in 1985.[41]

Art market

At a Sotheby's auction on 10 July 2002, Rubens's painting Massacre of the Innocents, rediscovered not long before, sold for £49.5 million (US$76.2 million) to Lord Thomson. At the end of 2013 this remained the record auction price for an Old Master painting. At a Christie's auction in 2012, Portrait of a Commander sold for £9.1 million (US$13.5 million) despite a dispute over the authenticity so that Sotheby's refused to auction it as a Rubens.[42]

Selected exhibitions

1936 Rubens and His Times, Paris.

1997 The Century of Rubens in French Collections, Paris.

2004 Rubens, Palais de Beaux-Arts, Lille.

2005 Peter Paul Rubens: The Drawings, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

2015 Rubens and His Legacy, The Royal Academy, London.

In popular culture

In Ouida's novel A Dog of Flanders the main characters Nello and Patrasche wish to see both Rubens' "The Elevation of the Cross" and "The Descent from the Cross" for once in their life. It serves as the climax of the story, as they both sneak inside the Antwerp Cathedral on a freezing Christmas Eve to witness the beauty of the painting. The next day they are found frozen to death in front of the triptych.[43]

See also


    1. Jump up ^ "Rubens". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
    2. Jump up ^ H. C. Erik Midelfort, "Mad Princes of Renaissance Germany", page 58, University of Virginia Press, 22 January 1996. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
    3. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 11–18.
    4. Jump up ^ Held (1983): 14–35.
    5. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 22–38.
    6. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 42; 57.
    7. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 52–57
    8. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 59.
    9. Jump up ^ Sirjacobs, Raymond. Antwerpen Sint-Pauluskerk: Rubens En De Mysteries Van De Rozenkrans = Rubens Et Les Mystères Du Rosaire = Rubens and the Mysteries of the Rosary, Antwerpen: Sint-Paulusvrienden, 2004
    10. Jump up ^ Rosen, Mark (2008). "The Medici Grand Duchy and Rubens' First Trip to Spain". Oud Holland (Vol. 121, No. 2/3): 147–152. 
    11. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 71–73
    12. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 75.
    13. Jump up ^ Jaffé (1977): 85–99; Belting (1994): 484–90, 554–56.
    14. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 95.
    15. Jump up ^ Martin (1977): 109.
    16. Jump up ^ Pauw-De Veen (1977): 243–251.
    17. Jump up ^ A Hyatt Mayor, Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton, 1971, no.427–32, ISBN 0-691-00326-2
    18. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 175; 192; Held (1975): 218–233, esp. pp. 222–225.
    19. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 173–175.
    20. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 199–228.
    21. Jump up ^ Auwers: p. 25.
    22. Jump up ^ Auwers: p. 32.
    23. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 339–340
    24. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 210–218.
    25. Jump up ^ Belkin (1998): 217–218.
    26. Jump up ^ "Minerva protects Pax from Mars ('Peace and War')". The National Gallery. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
    27. Jump up ^ Nico Van Hout, 1979
    28. Jump up ^ "Review on JSTOR" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-03-05. 
    29. Jump up ^ "Gender in Art – Dictionary definition of Gender in Art | FREE online dictionary". Retrieved 2016-03-05. 
    30. Jump up ^ "Rubens's France: Gender and Personification in the Marie de Médicis Cycle on JSTOR" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-03-05. 
    31. Jump up ^ "Rubens's France: Gender and Personification in the Marie de Médicis Cycle on JSTOR" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-03-05. 
    32. Jump up ^ "Gender in Art – Dictionary definition of Gender in Art | FREE online dictionary". Retrieved 2016-03-05. 
    33. Jump up ^ Smith, John (1830), A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters: Peter Paul Rubens, Smith 
    34. Jump up ^ Joost vander Auwera (2007), Rubens, l'atelier du génie, Lannoo Uitgeverij, p. 14, ISBN 978-90-209-7242-9 
    35. Jump up ^ John Smith, A catalogue raisonne of the works of the most eminent (...)(1830), p. 153. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
    36. Jump up ^ The Annual Register, Or, A View of the History, Politics, and Literature for the Year ..., J. Dodsley, 1862, p. 18 
    37. Jump up ^ Albert J. Loomie, "A Lost Crucifixion by Rubens," The Burlington Magazine Vol. 138, No. 1124 (Nov. 1996). Retrieved 8 June 2014.
    38. Jump up ^ W. Pickering, The Gentleman's Magazine vol. 5 (1836), p.590. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
    39. Jump up ^ Barnes, An examination of Hunting Scenes by Peter Paul Rubens(2009), p.34. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
    40. Jump up ^ Sutton, Peter C. (2004), Drawn by the Brush: Oil Sketches by Peter Paul Rubens, Yale University Press, p. 144, ISBN 978-0-300-10626-8 
    41. Jump up ^ Goss, Steven (2001), "A Partial Guide to the Tools of Art Vandalism", Cabinet Magazine (3) 
    42. Jump up ^ Art historians cast doubt over Earl Spencer's £9m Rubens, The Independent, 11 July 2010
    43. Jump up ^


Further reading

External links


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